Architecture / Design / Education / Group

  • AIA: The American Institute of Architects. Members are permitted the use of the letters following their names. Fellows use F.A.I.A.
  • Amsterdam School: Group of Netherlands architects influenced by E.G.H.H. Cuijpers, Berlage, and F.L.L. Wright…
  • ARAU: Belgian architectural pressure-group formed in 1968 by Maurice Culot to study problems posed by drastic urban redevelopment (especially arguing for conservation and restoration
  • Arbeitstrat fur Kunst: Group of German architects founded by Bruno Taut, including Otto Bartning, Walter Gropius, Erich Mendelsohn, and Max Taut. Gropius took over leadership in 1919 and when he moved to the Weimar Bauhaus, the program there reflected the groups ideals; a fusion of the arts under the wing of architecture.
  • Arcadia: Central area of Peloponnesus, shut off from the coast by mountains, inhabited in Antiquity by shepherds and hunters worshipping the nature-deities Pan, Hermes, and Artemis…
  • Archigram: Group of English designer formed by Sir Peter Frederic Chester Cook, Herron, Warren Chalk, et.al, influenced by Cedric Price…
  • Architect’s Collaborative: See Gropius, Walter.
  • Architects’ Co-Partnership: Firm of English architects, founded 1939 and restructured 1945, it fostered team-work and often used industrialized components…
  • ArchiteXt: AntoMetapolism informal grouping of Japanese architects…
  • Archizoom: Group of Florentine architects, founded 1966, devoted to anto-Functionalism, employing elements from popular culture and even for Kitsch
  • Arcology: Combination of architecture and ecology supported by Soleri as a solution to urban living involving the building of megastructures able to contain up to three million people…
  • Art-Workers’ Guild: Founded 1884 as a forum for discussion for architects, craftsmen, and designers, it promoted Arts-and-Crafts ideals, and still continues at the beginning of the 21st c. Its Masters have included Lutyens, Morris, Dedding, and Gradidge.
  • Atelier 5: Group of Swiss architects established at Berne in 1955…
  • Athens Charter: In 1933, the fourth CIAM congress investigated 33 major cities, and evolved principles based on Le Corbusier’s notions of the distribution and ordering of functions, including rigid zoning, housing in high-rise blocks, and wholesale destruction of existing urban fabric
  • BBPR: Architectural partnership founded in Milan by Gianluigi Banfi…
  • California School: Term used to group some American landscape architects, all working independently, but responding to Californian demands for gardens with amenities such as swimming-pools and terraces allowing the living-rooms to extend outwards…
  • Cambridge Camden Society: Founded as the Cambridge Society for the Study of Church Architecture, and named after the antiquary, William Camden…
  • Campionesi: The 19th century term for a group of sculptors/architects active in Lombardy…
  • Chicago School of Architecture: Leading group of pioneer skyscraper architects, led by William Le Baron Jenney (1832-1907). Also see Second Chicago School of Architecture (c.1940-75) led by Mies van der Rohe.
  • CIE: Commission Internationale de l’Eclairage, an international commission developing definitions, standards, and procedures for the art, science, and technology of lighting.
  • CLASP: Several English local education authorities combined resources to develop a system of prefabricated school-building
  • cosmati: Architects, mosaicists, and sculptors, School of Loaurentius.
  • Delft School: Group of Dutch architects associated with the Technishe Hogeschool, Delft, and especially with Granpré Moliére, who objected, like Berlage, to the dogma and pretensions of unprincipled Nieuwe Zakelijkheid and the International style with its obsessions about industrial processes…
  • Der Block: Group of German traditionalist architects formed (1928) to resist the Modernist Ring group…
  • Der Ring: Architectural pressure-group founded 1923-4 as the ‘Ring of Ten’ representing Neues Bauen. Membership was extended (1926) to include Bartning, Behrens, Gropius, Häring, Haesler, Hilbersheimer, Korn, the Luckhardts, E. May, Mendelsohn, A. Meyer, Mies van der Rohe, Poelzig, Scharoun, the Tauts, Tessenow, and Martin Wagner, et al., and it acquired its name. It promoted ‘new architecture’ for the ‘new scientific and social’ epoch (which, in effect, became International Modernism) rejecting Historicism…
  • Der Sturm: Literally ‘The Assault’ or ‘The Storm’, title of a Berlin art-gallery (1912-14) and journal (1910-32) devoted to the avant-garde in Germany, founded by Herwarth Walden (1878-1941). Through Der Sturm Futurism and Expressionism were promoted.
  • Devětsil Group: Founded 1920, it was the focus for the avant-garde of the new Czechoslovak Republic after 1918, and embraced International Modernism
  • Dryopic: Pertaining to the Dryopians, held to be one of the earliest settlers in Ancient Greece, hence prehistoric columnar structures pre-dating Classical Antiquity, such as those of Euboea.
  • École des Beaux Arts: During the last quarter of the 19th century, American neoclassicism embraced the architecture of Rome and the Renaissance together with that of Greece. How to adapt and combine elements of this broad classical heritage to meet present demands was the aim of a new class of professional architects. The Ecole des Beaux-Arts in Paris epitomized this methodology. Many Americans trained in Paris.
  • École des Beaux-Arts: The influential French art school founded in 1648. It had a considerable effect on American architects in the late 19th century, advocating the use of Classical and Renaissance elements in grand designs.
  • Egyptology: The science and art of Egyptian monuments, artifacts, inscriptions, and the like.
  • Elementarism: Term used by van Doesberg to describe the use of planes and colors in architecture
  • Freemasonry: System of morality, veiled in allegory, and illustrated by symbols (many of them associated with architecture and working with stone): it is an organization based on a Lodge, with unique and elaborate rituals and secrets…
  • Gläserne Kette: German group founded by Bruno Taut, including Gropius and Scharoun, favoring forms derived from crystals, shells, and plants, using glass, steel, and concrete. Several members later jointed the Ring.
  • Glasgow school: Name given to late-19th to early 20th c. Glasgow architects/designers, especially C.R. Mackintosh, Margaret and Frances, Macdonald, and Herbert McNair…
  • Gruppo 7: Association of Italian architects, Figini, Guido Frette, Sebastiano Larco, Pollini, Carlo Enrico Rava, and Terragri, which, in their exhibition at Monza and manifesto in La Rassegna Italiana, promoted a supposed Rationalism in which attempts were made to balance the Classical heritage of Italy and a machine aesthetic derived from Le Corbusier…
  • guild: Formerly, and to a limited extent in modern usage, an association of merchants, artisans, or mechanics, both employees and masters, of the same trade or similar trades, organized for mutual protection, advancement, and the instruction of apprentices bound over to the association; and also for benevolent purposes, as in providing for destitute members, bearing the expenses of burial, and the like…
  • IBA: To mark the 750th anniversary of the founding of the city, the West Berlin authorities decided to hold an international exhibition to promote a series of exemplary permanent housing initiatives…
  • IES: Illuminating Engineering Society, a professional society in North America devoted to the development and dissemination of standards and procedures relating to the art, science, and technology of lighting.
  • Land art: As part of the 1960s rejection of concepts of art-galleries and museums, a movement evolved concerned with site-specific creations within the natural environment using organic materials: the landscape itself was the ‘canvas’ on which the artist impost his or her explorations…
  • L’Ecole des Beaux Arts: During the last quarter of the 19th century, American neoclassicism embraced the architecture of Rome and the Renaissance together with that of Greece. How to adapt and combine elements of this broad classical heritage to meet present demands was the aim of a new class of professional architects. The Ecole des Beaux-Arts in Paris epitomized this methodology. Many Americans trained in Paris.
  • MARS: Modern Architectural Research Group. A group of architects (including Arup, Coates, and Lubetkin) founded (1933) to promote International Modernism and Rationalism in the United Kingdom (it was the UK branch of CIAM). Taking its cue from Le Corbusier’s Plan Voisin and other theoretical ideas, it proposed (1942) widespread destruction and rebuilding of London. It was disbanded (1957).
  • Metabolism: Japanese architectural movement founded (1960) by Tange. With members including Kikutake, Kurokawa, and Fumihiko Maki, it was concerned with the nature and expression of private and public spaces, with flexibility, and changeable use. Prefabrication, advanced technology, and industrialization were employed to create small capsules or living-units for private spaces, connected to service-towers and circulation-areas, as in Kurokawa’s Nagakin Capsule Tower, Tokyo (1972).
  • MIAR: For Movimento Italiano per l’Architetura Razionale. Italian Rationalism was promoted at an exhibition in Rome (1928) organized by Libera and Gruppo 7. A new movement, MAR was then transformed (1930) to bring all Italy’s Rationalist architects together and to promote another exhibition (1931), celebrated by the publication of Manifesto per l’Architectura Razionale supported energetically by the Fascist leader, Benito Mussolini.
  • Morava School: See Byzantine architecture.
  • New York Five: Known as the ‘whites’ because of their predominantly white buildings (notably those of Richard Alan Meier))…
  • Novembergruppe: Association of Left-wing German artists and architects founded immediately after their nation’s defeat in the 1914-18 war…
  • Novocentismo: Group established in Milan after the 1914-18 war: including architects such as Muzio and Ponti, it issued a ‘call to order’ concerned with a return to Neo-Classicism and favored the symbolic use of historical motifs while accepting new ideas concerning space and building technology…
  • Patkau Architects: See organic architecture.
  • Philadelphia School: Term used to describe architects associated with Louis Kahn and his disciples, notably Mitchell & Giurgola.
  • SAR: For Sichting Architecten Research. Dutch foundation for architectural design that sought to give the inhabitants of urban housing a collective and individual say in its control and evolution…
  • Skidmore, Owings & Merrill: The world’s most successful firm of architects – see, in particular Fazlur Khan (1929-82).
  • TAC: For The Architects’ Collaborative. Founded (1945) in the USA by Gropius: works included the Harvard Graduate Center, Cambridge, MA (1949).
  • Team X: A group of younger architects who in the 1930s first challenged and later overthrew CIAM and its prescriptive definition of Modern architecture.
  • Tecton: Association of London architects established (1932) by Lubetkin, arguable the most influential International Modernists in the UK until 1948…
  • The Whites: See New York Five.
  • Ticnese School: Group of architects working in the Ticino region of Switzerland from the 1960s, concerned with a reconsideration of architectural style, a greater historical awareness, and the promotion of Rational architecture
  • Turin 1902 Exhibition: Important international Arts-and-Crafts exhibition in Turin, Italy, marking the apothesis of Art Nouveau in that country (called Stile Liberty). The main building by d’Aronco, was a tour-de-force of Art Nouveau, much influenced by the Vienna Sezession.
  • Utopie group: Architectural group established (1967) in Paris to promote expandable, inflatable, pneumatic, temporary, transportable structures. It often used collage in its publications.
  • Wiener Werkstätte: Literally ‘Vienna Workshop’, founded 1903 to emulate English Arts-and-Crafts workshops, such as the Guild of Handicrafts of C.R. Ashbee. It grew partly from the Sezession exhibition (1900) that included designs by Mackintosh and Ashbee. By 1905 the Werkstätte was employing over 100 people, most of the artefacts being designed by Joseph Hoffmann and Koloman Moser…

Also see Architecture index.