Paradise: The court of the atrium in front of a church. 2. The garth of a cloister. 3. A Persian pleasure garden, usually elaborately planted.

Paradise garden: Geometrical enclosed Islamic garden of Persian origin with regularly laid out canals and paths dividing it into four areas, themselves divided by paths. The canals represent the rivers flowing out of the Garden of Eden. A good example is the 17th c. garden of the Tâj Mahal.

Mesopotamia: An ancient region in western Asia between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, comprising the lands of Sumer and Akkad and occupied successively by the Sumerians, Babylonians, Assyrians, and Persians: now part of Iraq.

dalan: In Persian and Indian architecture, a veranda, or sometimes a more stately reception hall, more or less open to the weather, with a roof carried on columns, or the like.

dallan: In Persian and Indian architecture, a veranda, or sometimes a more stately reception hall, more or less open to the weather, with a roof carried on columns, or the like.

mithraeum: An underground cave-like sanctuary devoted to the mystery cult of the Persian sun god Mithra. Such sanctuaries were constructed throughout the Roman Empire during the 2nd and 3rd century A.D.

bāgh: Enclosed garden of Persian origin. A chahar bāgh or chār-bāgh is a garden subdivided into four parts by canals and paths, e.g. the Paradise-garden of the Taj Mahal at Agra.

chahar bāgh: From the Persian, meaning ‘four gardens’, it is a garden-type divided into four parts by means of walks and water-courses intersecting in the center, so is a formal geometrical design symbolizing both the organization of territory and the idea of the Celestial Gardens of Paradise. Such gardens were associated with Mughal palaces and mausolea.

charbāgh: From the Persian, meaning ‘four gardens’, it is a garden-type divided into four parts by means of walks and water-courses intersecting in the center, so is a formal geometrical design symbolizing both the organization of territory and the idea of the Celestial Gardens of Paradise. Such gardens were associated with Mughal palaces and mausolea.

Persian: A telamon, especially one portrayed in Persian dress.

 

Achaemenid Dynasty
Cyrus the Great 559-530

Achaemenian: Period in Persian architecture from the time of Cyrus the Great (d. 529 BC) until the death of Darius III (330 BC). Its most elaborate buildings include the vast palace complex at Persepolis which included large relief decorations, while the apadana (or Hall of the Hundred Columns) had elaborate capitals with vertical volutes and animal-heads. Reliefs of green, yellow, and blue glazed bricks were employed at the palaces of Susa, and the rock-cut tombs at Naksh-i-Rustam have similar capitals to those of Persepolis, with door-surrounds derived from Egyptian precedents.

Achaemenid: Period in Persian architecture from the time of Cyrus the Great (d. 529 BC) until the death of Darius III (330 BC). Its most elaborate buildings include the vast palace complex at Persepolis which included large relief decorations, while the apadana (or Hall of the Hundred Columns) had elaborate capitals with vertical volutes and animal-heads. Reliefs of green, yellow, and blue glazed bricks were employed at the palaces of Susa, and the rock-cut tombs at Naksh-i-Rustam have similar capitals to those of Persepolis, with door-surrounds derived from Egyptian precedents.

Cambyses (son) 529-522
Smerdis (Bardiya) (brother) 522
Darius I, the Great 521-486

tachara: The residence hall at Persepolis, built by Darius.

apadana: Square porticoed, free-standing hypostyle hall such as that in Persepolis built by Darius I.

apadhana: Square porticoed, free-standing hypostyle hall such as that in Persepolis built by Darius I.

Xerxes I (son) 485-465

hadish: A palace built by Xerxes at Persepolis.

Artaxerxes I, Longimanus (son) 464-424
Xerxes II (son) 424
Sogdianus (brother) 424
Darius II, Nothus (brother) 423-405
Artaxerxes II, Mnemon (son) 404-359
Artaxerxes III (Ochus) (son) 358-338
Artaxerxes IV ( Arses) (son) 337-336
Darius III (Codomannus) (great-grandson of Darius II) 335-330

Macedonian Conquest of the Persian Empire 330

Seleucids
Seleucus I Nicator 305-281 B.C.
Antiochus I Soter 281-261
Antiochus II Theos 261-246
Seleucus II Callinicus 246-225

Parthian Empire – Arsacid Dynasty
Arsaces I (conquered Parthia c. 238) 247-211
Arsaces II (son) 211-191
Priapatius (son) 191-176
Phraates I (son) 176-171
Mithridates I (brother) 171-138
Phraates II (son) 138-128
Artabanus I (son of Priapatius) 128-123
Mithridates II, the Great (son) 123-87
Gotarzes I 90-80
Orodes I 80-77
Sinatruces 77-70
Phraates III (son) 70-57
Mithridates III (son) 57-54
Orodes II (brother) 57-38
Phraates IV (son) 38-2
Phraates V (son) 2-AD 4
Orodes III 7-Apr
Vonones I (son of Phraates IV) 12-Jul
Artabanus II Dec-38
Vardanes I (son) 38-45
Gotarzes II (brother) 45-51
Vonones II 51
Vologases I (son or brother) 51-78
Vardanes II 55-58
Vologases II 77-80
Pacorus (son of Vologases I) 78-110
Artabanus III (brother) 80-90
Osroes 109-129
Vologases III 112-147
Mithridates IV 129-147
Vologases IV 147-191
Vologases V (son) 191-208
Vologases VI (son) 208-222
Artabanus IV (brother) 213-224

Sasanid Dynasty

Sassanian architecture: A period in Persian architecture about the 5th and 6th centuries.

Ardashir I 224-241
Shapur I (son; co-regent 240) 241-272
Hormizd I (son) 272-273
Bahram I (brother) 273-276
Bahram II (son) 276-293
Bahram III (son; deposed) 293
Narseh (son of Shapur I) 293-302
Hormizd II (son) 302-309
Shapur II (son) 310-379
Ardashir II (nephew) 379-383
Shapur III (son of Shapur II) 383-388
Bahram IV (son) 388-399
Yazdgard I (son) 399-420
Bahram V, the Wild Ass (son) 420-438
Yazdgard II (son) 438-457
Hormizd III (son) 457-459
Peroz I (brother) 459-484
Balash (brother) 484-488
Kavad I (son of Peroz; deposed) 488-497
Zamasp (brother) 497-499
Kavad I (restored) 499-531
Khusrau I, Anushirvan (son) 531-579
Hormizd IV (son; deposed) 579-590
Bahram VI, Chbn (usurper; deposed) 590-591
Khusrau II, the Victorious (son of Hormizd IV; deposed and died 628) 590-628
Kavad II, Shiroe (son) 628
Ardashir III (son) 628-630
Shahrbaraz (usurper) 630
Boran (daughter of Khusrau II) 630-631
Peroz II (cousin) 631
Azarmedukht (daughter of Khusrau II) 631-632
Yazdgard III (nephew) 632-651

Arab Conquest of the Sasanid Empire 651
At the end of the ancient period, war with Heraclius of the Byzantine Empire weakened the Persians enough that the Arabs gained control.

 

Also see Architecture index.

 

Sources Cited

Timeline of the Ancient Rulers of Persia (Modern Iran)