Also see Architecture Type index.

Also see Architecture index.

 

Airplane Bungalow

THE AIRPLANE BUNGALOW IS ANOTHER TYPE that emerged during the 1920s. The appellation “airplane” seems to have been applied after this style appeared on the market. This type was an attempt—modest at first—to extend the bungalow on the horizontal and accent the vertical. The low gable roof forms are the key to the design. The gables are contiguous and successive as in other structures, but the massing of roofs is quite different. Not only are roofs built so that they grow out of each other on the facade, but gables abut the main roof on the side elevations. Smaller gables cover the second-floor sections. This kind of house looks accretive, in that sections could have been added arbitrarily to the base structure, but that is not the case. All the roof and frame sections are tightly integrated, and there is nothing accidental about the design

Source: Gottfried & Jennings

·         roof       low pitched gable roofs, overhanging eaves

·         windows             proportion of windows to wall (cottage, paired, triple windows)

·         porch    large deep porch on two sides

Bay-Front Double House

THE BAY-FRONT DOUBLE HOUSE, PRIMARILY A nineteenth-century building, was a two- or three-story structure With several roof options: a mansard roof, a gable roof with the ridge parallel to the street, or a flat roof and accompanying parapet. The primary design scheme required a full-height, usually three-sided bay window or pavilion on each end that flanked a double entrance. The bays terminated in their own roofs. Dormers were frequently built on these units to utilize attic space, especially on those with mansard roofs

Source: Gottfried & Jennings

·         roof       multiple roof forms

·         gable     gable ornament

·         cladding               brick

·         walls      stickwork dividing walls into panels

·         windows              symmetrical fenestration, 1/1 double hung windows

·         decoration          turned posts and brackets, Italianate detailing

Bay-Front Rowhouse

THE BAY-FRONT ROWHOUSE WAS ONE OF THE LAST editions of this universal city house. Later nineteenth-century and early twentieth-century builders looked for ways to address the narrow facade. Most frequently they extended the house by means of a porch replacing the traditional stoop, and compressed the upper level with a three-sided oriel window. There were other variations in the window treatment on the second floor, but most motifs involved replacing the sash windows with an alternative form…

Source: Gottfried & Jennings

·         roof       flat roof

·         cladding               brick, sometimes stone

·         walls      parapet or wide cornice

·         windows              bay window that sits on shed porch roof, single cottage window on 1st floor, sometimes art glass header in cottage window

·         porch    porch with columns and pedestals, and open rail

Box house (4 and 6 units)

Source: McAlester

Bungalow

THE BUNGALOW IS A UNIQUE HOUSE TYPE THAT borrowed house forms from other cultures and invested in American sensibility and American materials to produce an original and intelligent design. As built from 1895 to 1915—its first development period—the bungalow was known as the California bungalow. Because of the nature of the design and the kind of living which that design suggested, it was appropriate for this form to develop on the west coast. The bungalow plan, which reduces the distinction between outside and inside space, reflects the open, practical, outdoor living possible in California. During the first part of the twentieth century, Americans became more interested in casual living, in built-in storage, in compact arrangements with plenty of air and light, and in open plan and less complicated furnishings. The bungalow responded to those needs…

Source: Gottfried & Jennings

·         roof       gently pitched, broad gables, lower gable covers porch, large gable covers house, exposed rafters or purlins, wide projecting eaves, heavy bargeboard supported by brackets

·         cladding               clapboard

·         walls      flared, water table

·         porch    enclosed, screened, or extended by terrace, often pergola over terrace

·         columns               tapered posts on pedestals

Bungalow Cottage

IN THE HISTORY OF THE AMERICAN HOUSE FORM, the termcottage” covered most of what was built in the nineteenth century, and the termbungalow”—sometimes wrongly applied—covered a good deal of what was built in the first half of the twentieth. It is not surprising that, in time, builders and designers also generated a building that combined attributes of both. While present-day critics refer to these as “bungaloid” forms, the period term bungalow cottage seems more appropriate…

Source: Gottfried & Jennings

·         roof       broad gable, ridgeline parallel to street, roof covers porch

·         dormer shed or wide gable

·         cladding               combination of materials, varies between 1st and 2nd floors

·         walls      brackets, exposed rafters, foundation material distinctive, two-tone effect from 1st to 2nd floor

·         chimney               end-wall common

·         windows              bay on elevation

·         door      panel and glass, Craftsman

·         porch    variety of bungalow treatments

Camelback House

This version of the shotgun cottage, a single story structure one room wide and two or more rooms deep, has a two-story enlargement at the rear: either (a) a second story added above the back two rooms, preserving the strict linearity of the house, or (b) a separate two—story section perpendicular to the front of the structure. Chimney placement varies. This peculiar form is a response to property tax laws in New Orleans; Louisville, Kentucky; and other cities which assessed houses according to the size of front facades.

Source: Jakle

Also see: Newton 1971, 16; Vlach 1976, 51; Noble 1984, 98.

 

Cape Cod Cottage

THE CAPE COD HOUSE HAS BEEN RECOGNIZED AS a unique vernacular type for almost 200 years but was not adopted by the industrial vernacular tradition until the 1920s, and even then it was referred to as a colonial cottage. Following Massachusetts custom, the early commercial Cape Cod was a compact house clad with shingles, featuring a small portico or pedimented entrance and a large interior central or end-wall chimney. Many models had a low gable on the facade, twin gable dormers, or a cutaway porch. The Cape Cod was produced and distributed in packages of integrated architectural elements. A major component of large subdivisions, the Cape Cod was often streamlined and abstracted until only the basic form, with narrower gables, remained. The cladding became clapboard or brick, as well as natural or man-made shingles. The chimney disappeared, and the entrance developed a projecting vestibule. The house was still sold as charming and cozy, but market forces made it a starter home.

Source: Gottfried & Jennings

·         roof       wide gable roof

·         dormer gable dormers on façade, sometimes shed dormer on back

·         cladding               wide clapboard or shingles

·         walls      sometimes shutters

·         chimney               large chimney

·         windows              symmetrical fenestration, 6/6 or 6/1 window pattern

·         entrance              colonial motifs on entrance

·         porch    projecting vestibule or stoop

Cape Cod Cottage (Double-House Cape Cod Cottage)

This structure, common in late eighteenth- and early nineteenth-century New England, is derived from the hall and parlor cottage. This compact dwelling usually contains two rooms in front with three smaller rooms across the rear. A half-story is reached by a staircase set between central chimney columns (a). Twentieth-century revival versions (commercial builders’ Cape Cod cottages) retain the traditional exterior form, although interior floor plans are much changed (b). Roofs on revival cottages are frequently interrupted by attic dormers.

Source: Jakle

Also see: For traditional Cape Cod cottages, see Connally 1960, 51; Cummings 1979, 23; Hubka 1979, 220; Rifkind 1980, 14. For twentieth-century revival versions, see Stith and Meyer 1974, 4; Walker 1981, 88; McAlester and McAlester 1984, 78; Noble 1984, 23.

 

Carolina I House

This structure is a common variation of the basic I house, a two-story structure that is one room deep and two rooms wide with a central hallway. This version has an attached single-story shed-style porch across the front and a matching single-story shed-like extension across the rear. It is common to the Carolinas but is not restricted to that region.

Source: Jakle

Also see: Kniffen 1965, 554; Newton 1971, 11; Swaim 1978, 38; McAlester and McAlester 1984, 80.

 

Center-Gable Cottage

THE CENTER-GABLE COTTAGE HAS A LONG HISTORY of development that seems to emerge from the application of gables to Gothic revival houses. During the period 1870-1940, the gable itself, while always aligned over the entrance door, lost its narrow, steeply pitched gable roof and widened to function more properly as a dormer. This house, built during the period 1870-90, was rectangular in shape, with the Wide side toward the street, and has a central hall plan with four rooms to each floor. The center gable was a frame house with clapboard siding, although shingles were later used in gable ends. The fenestration was symmetrically arranged in three bays. The house had a porch that was shallow in the older models and shallow but wide in the later ones. The porch carried its own roof supported by square posts

Source: Gottfried & Jennings

·         plan       3-5 bays

·         roof       gable

·         roof       gable, ridgeline parallel to street, dormer dominates roof, often returns or pent

·         dormer 1 large center gable dormer, window treatment in dormer

·         cladding               clapboard

·         walls      cornerboards, façade has a temple front

·         chimney               interior brick

·         windows              symmetrical fenestration, double-hung sash, variable pattern, sometimes oriel

·         porch    wide entrance porch

Center-Gable Cottage

Source: Gottfried & Jennings

·         plan       3-5 bays

·         roof       gable

·         roof       gable, ridgeline parallel to street, dormer dominates roof, often returns or pent

·         dormer 1 large center gable dormer, window treatment in dormer

·         cladding               clapboard

·         walls      cornerboards, façade has a temple front

·         chimney               interior brick

·         windows              symmetrical fenestration, double-hung sash, variable pattern, sometimes oriel

·         porch    wide entrance porch

Colonial Cottage

FROM 1870 TO 1940 SEVERAL COLONIAL REVIVAL houses developed; this section deals with two of them. The fervor for American culture that swept the country after the 1876 Centennial resulted in the revival of two house types, the New England eighteenth-century cottage of English medieval origins, and the Georgian. Well into the twentieth century the vernacular tradition included these in its inventory, as well as the Dutch gambrel, the so-called Cape Cod, and the large hipped and pedimented cottages with colonial motifs, which are all discussed in other sections…

Source: Gottfried & Jennings

·         roof       gable, ridgeline parallel to street

·         dormer sometimes gable dormers

·         cladding               clapboard, brick, shingles

·         walls      nonfunctioning shutters, sometimes historical details – lunette, dentils, 2nd-floor overhang, pendants

·         chimney               end wall

·         windows              symmetrical fenestration, double-hung sash, 6/1 major pattern

·         entrance              portico or flush door entrance with pediment or hood, panel door, or panel with lights door, sometimes sidelights

·         porch    end-wall porch, or sunroom

Colonial Gambrel

The colonial gambrel cottage is a subtype of the generic model. Throughout most of its history, which includes authentic eighteenth-century examples as well as several revival-style types, the house has been thought of as Dutch in origin and spirit. The revival style presented on these pages was popular during 1900—1940 and was referred to as Dutch colonial. The shape of the building was strongly dictated by the shape of the roof, which in the Dutch-Flemish tradition frequently had flared eaves. In many models the flare was wide enough to provide some shelter over the entrance. The roof ridge ran parallel to the street, so that the facade was available for a full design treatment. A three-bay front was common, but five-bay units can be found. The second-floor level was outlined by either a long shed dormer that covered most of the roof, or by two or three evenly spaced gable dormers. The dormers were repeated on the rear elevation. The entrance was understated, with only a hood or a pediment to mark the door and the shallow porch. Some pediments evolved into porticoes with slender columns. Fenestration was for the most part symmetrical on all elevations…

Source: Gottfried & Jennings

·         roof       gambrel, ridgeline parallel to street

·         dormer shed across entire façade, sometimes gambrel or gable dormers

·         cladding               wide clapboard, sometimes brick veneer on 1st floor façade

·         walls      often shutters, sometimes stone foundation

·         chimney               1 or 2 end-wall, brick or stone

·         windows              many double-hung sash, multipaned lights as 6/1, 6/6, 9/1, quarter-circle lunettes in gable end, often paired or triple on 1st-floor façade

·         door      panel door

·         entrance              small entrance porch, hood, roof, overhanging or portico, sometimes sidelights or fanlights, sometimes benches

·         porch    end-wall porch or sunroom, Tuscan columns

Colonial Hipped Cottage

Colonial-style hipped cottages appeared before the end of the nineteenth century, but were especially popular during the first few decades of the twentieth. The overall shape and plan were closely related to the generic cottage. There is historical continuity in the use of a square plan and the cubical shape, but the real essence of this colonial revival lay in the application of colonial motifs to the basic form. The entire design became formal and, for the most part, restrained. The roof took on a flat with a balustrade, while chimney caps were vaguely colonial or Queen Anne. The roof carried a central hipped dormer. The façade received slightly different treatments on each level, the first floor being a wide, plain wall pierced by large cottage windows, by a paneled door with molding plants derived from historic patterns, and occasionally by sidelights. The porch was distinctly classical: the porch posts were columns, and most often the porch treatment included an order of architecture complete with a short pediment over the porch steps. The second-floor windows did not align with the first. Windows were indented toward the center, which often displayed an oval window on the center line. In a few cases, a second-floor door replaced the oval window for access to a balcony

Source: Gottfried & Jennings

·         roof       hipped, often with flat and balustrade

·         dormer hipped or gable on façade, sometimes a Palladian window

·         cladding               clapboard, sometimes shingle

·         walls      sometimes giant pilasters, quoins, curvilinear bays, shutters, porch lattice, dentils

·         chimney               interior brick with ornate cap

·         windows              symmetrical fenestration, double-hung multipaned upper sash, one light lower sash, Palladian or oval accent

·         porch    formal with order of architecture, sometimes balcony, 1- or 2-story portico

·         columns               Ionic or Tuscan

Composite Bungalow with Irregular Massing

An elaboration of either the cottage bungalow or the shotgun bungalow, this 1- or 1 1/2-story structure displays geometric complexity with a highly irregular perimeter outline. Floor plans display considerable variation, although, as in other bungalows, rooms generally connect without use of large hallways, and the front door commonly opens directly into the living room. Broad eaves and a low pitch characterize roofs that are most frequently multiple-hip or multiple-gable. These structures first appeared at the very end of the nineteenth century as part of the bungalow fashion popularized by commercial builders.

Source: Jakle

Composite Cottage with Irregular Massing

This 1- or 1 1/2-story structure is geometrically complex and has a highly irregular perimeter outline. Multiple-gable, multiple-hip, or combined multiple-gable and hip roofs predominate. Floors plans display extreme variation. Bays, pavilions, dormers, and multiple porches and chimneys make the larger cottages eclectic architectural displays. Composite cottages were popular between 1890 and 1910.

Source: Jakle

Composite Cottage with Irregular Massing and Pyramid Roof (Southern Pyramid)

This 1- or 1 1/2-story structure features a steeply pitched pyramidal roof (sometimes truncated at the very top), making it an important variation of the composite cottage with irregular massing. The form originated in the South and appears to have been an elaboration of the pyramidal cottage. It was popular between 1890 and 1910.

Source: Jakle

Also see: Lewis 1975, 21.

 

Composite House with Irregular Massing

This 2- or 2 1/2-story structure is a composite of geometric forms with a highly irregular outline. Multiple-gable, multiple-hip, or combined multiple—gable and hip roofs predominate. Floor plans vary substantially. Towers, bays, pavilions, dormers, and multiple porches and chimneys may produce eclectic architectural displays. Late nineteenth-century houses tend to have open floor plans with hallways and principal rooms separated only by wide arches with sliding doors. Early twentieth-century houses are much reduced in scale.

Source: Jakle

Also see: For late nineteenth-century houses, see Peat 1962, 91; Handlin 1979, 353; Rifkind 1980, 56, 69, 82; Wright 1980, 26; Walker 1981, 149, 153, 163. For early twentieth-century houses, -see McAlester and McAlester 1984, 262.

 

Composite Ranch “House”

An elaboration of the ranchhouse,” this 1- or 11/2—story structure is geometrically complex and has an irregular outline. L, T, and lateral protuberances are most common requiring use of multiple-gable, multiple-hip, or combined multiple—gable and hip roofs. Floor plans vary considerably. First introduced immediately prior to World War II, its popularity continues today.

Source: Jakle

Also see: Walker 1981, 234, 252.

 

Continental Plan Cottage (or Cabin)

This 1- or 1 1/2-story dwelling is divided into three rooms. A kitchen extends through the full depth of the dwelling along one side. A front room (or parlor) and a rear bedroom occupy the other side. The fireplace and chimney column are located on the interior wall of the kitchen (with a five-plate stove in older structures sometimes built into the rear of the fireplace to warm the parlor beyond). The continental plan, introduced by Germans into Pennsylvania in the eighteenth century, was modified in the nineteenth century to embrace English building ideas and thus appears in many variations.

Source: Jakle

Also see: Glassie 1968a, 48; Pillsbury and Kardos c. 1970, 49; Rifkind 1980, 12; Walker 1981, 72; McAlester and

McAlester 1984, 83; Noble 1984, 43.

 

Continental Plan House (including the Penn Plan House or Quaker Plan House)

The continental plan, with its three-room first-floor arrangement, was used in 2- or 21/2-story structures in the eighteenth century, especially in Pennsylvania (a). Quaker migrants to the Carolinas introduced a variant of the house there (b). Continental plan houses are very similar in exterior appearance to two-thirds double-pile houses. Only the off-center placement of the chimneys and front doors suggests German or German-Swiss origins. Internal gable-end chimneys are common in nineteenth-century houses which, on the exterior, embrace English building ideas (c).

Source: Jakle

Also see: Bucher 1962, 14; Glassie 1968a, 54; Glassie 1972, 41; Swaim 1978, 34; Herman 1978, 162; Foley 1980, 63; Patrick 1981, 62; Walker 1981, 73, 77; Noble 1984, 45.

 

Cottage Bungalow

This 1- or 1 1/2-story structure (usually with a gable roof) is similar to the incised-porch bungalow except that the porch is added-on and not built-in. Eaves of the low- to moderately-pitched roof are extended outward on all sides. Dormers, front and back, are common, providing additional space in the half-story. Floor plans vary as do chimney arrangements. Generally, rooms have access to one another without the use of large hallways: the front door commonly opening into the living room. Bungalows, promoted by commercial builders, reached their height of popularity just prior to World War I.

Source: Jakle

Also see: Finley and Scott 1940, 414; Lancaster 1958, 239; Mattson 1981, 75.

Crossplan Cottage

The floor plan perimeter is cross-shaped in this irregularly massed 1 or 1 1/2 story structure with multiple-gable roof. The longer axis is usually perpendicular to the street, and the shorter cross-axis parallel. Floor plans and chimney placements vary in what is a late nineteenth, and early twentieth-century form. Shed-like front and/or side porches are common (a). The shorter cross-axis is not always fully developed (b). These structures, often built on speculation by builders, were most popular just prior to World War I.

Source: Jakle

 

Crossplan Cottage with Multiple Gambrel Roof

This crossplan cottage, popular in the first decade of the twentieth century, has a multiple-gambrel rather than a multiple-gable roof. The roof, by its size and unusual configuration, clearly dominates the structure. Shed roof porches are common.

Source: Jakle

Crossplan House

The floor-plan perimeter is cross-shaped in this irregularly massed, 2- or 21/2-story structure with multiple-gable roof. The longer axis is usually perpendicular to the street, the shorter crossaxis parallel. Floor plans and chimney placements vary in what is a late nineteenth- and early twentieth-century builder form. L-shaped shed—like front and side porches are common. The crossaxis is not always fully developed.

Source: Jakle

Crossplan House with Multiple Gambrel Roof

This early twentieth-century crossplan form has a multiple-gambrel rather than a multiple-gable roof. The roof, by its size and atypical configuration, clearly dominates the structure giving it a sense of vertical exaggeration. Shed-roof porches are typical.

Source: Jakle

Cube House (Cubic House, Two-Story Square House, Cornbelt Cube House, or Four-Square House)

This structure is a square or nearly square box with peaked-hip roof (sometimes truncated at the very top). Being two rooms wide and two rooms deep, it is essentially a 2- or 2 1/2—story version of the pyramidal cottage. However, most cube houses provide substantially greater floor space than pyramid cottages. This form type was popular throughout the first three decades of the twentieth century.

Source: Jakle

Also see: Finley and Scott 1940, 415; Kniffen 1965, 577; Rickert 1967, 229; Stith and Meyer 1974, 5; Walker 1981, 138; Noble 1984, 125.

 

Dogtrot Cabin or Cottage (Open Passage Cottage)

A widely used method of building a two-room 1- or 11/2—story log dwelling in the early nineteenth century was to separate two log pens (each approximately sixteen feet square) by an open central hall (usually half the width of a pen). The whole was covered by a common gable roof (a). In the mid- and late nineteenth century, the plan was widely replicated in frame construction, with shed-like porches both front and back and an L-extension (b).

Source: Jakle

Also see: Kniffen 1936, 187; Morrison 1952, 169; Glassie 1968a, 94; Newton 1971, 8; Ieane and Purcell 1978, 8, 16; Marshall 1981, 41; McAlester and McAlester 1984, 83; Noble 1984, 117.

Dogtrot House

The dogtrot plan was occasionally used in two-story houses in the nineteenth century, although rear L-extensions were usually only one story. This resulted in separate gable roofs for the main structure and addition. The open passage was frequently enclosed at a later date.

Source: Jakle

 

Double Shotgun Cottage (Double Bungalow)

This one-story structure, built primarily between 1890 and 1910, is comprised of two single shotgun plans built side by side under a common front-gable or hip roof. Front shed-roof porches are a typical feature, but chimney placement varies.

Source: Jakle

Also see: Lewis 1976, 59; Vlach 1976, 49.

 

Double Shotgun House

This two—story structure, built primarily between 1890 and 1910, is comprised of two shotgun plans built side by side under a single front-gable or hip roof.

Source: Jakle

 

Double-Pile Central Chimney House (including the New England Large House)

A house with a salt—box floor plan (with lobby entrance facing a central chimney and smaller rooms in back), this structure has a symmetrical gable roof when viewed in side profile. Thus it has a full second story across the rear rather than a lean—to extension.

Source: Jakle

Also see: Kelly 1924, 14; Morrison 1952, 474; Williams and Williams 1957, 67; Pillsbury and Kardos c. 1970, 25; Hubka 1979, 220; Walker 1981, 78; Noble 1984, 26.

Double-Pile Cottage (including the Georgian Plan Cottage)

A double—pile, 1- or 1 1/2-story dwelling with gable roof, most eighteenth- and early nineteenth-century versions have two rooms paired on either side of a central hallway (a). Chimney placement varies, with paired interior chimneys common. A flat hipped roof version of this cottage was also popular. Twentieth-century structures only approximate traditional prototypes. The central hallway is reduced or eliminated, the front door frequently opening into the living room (b).

Source: Jakle

Also see: For eighteenth- and early nineteenth-century versions, see Swaim 1978, 40; Ieane and Purcell 1978, 53, 70. For twentieth-century structures, see Walker 1981, 113; McAlester and McAlester 1984, 98.

Double-Pile Cottage with Cottage with Gambrel Roof

A double-pile, 1- or 1 1/2-story cottage with gambrel roof, most eighteenth- and nineteenth-century examples have paired rooms on either side of a central hallway. Twentieth-century structures only approximate this floor plan. In “Dutch Colonial” 1 1/2-story cottages, gambrel roofs are usually dominated by large dormers which create a two story effect.

Source: Jakle

Also see: For eighteenth- and nineteenth-century examples, see Morrison 1952, 128; Rifkind 1980, 13. For twentieth-century structures, see Embury 1913, 1; Stump 1981, 44; Walker 1981, 59; McAlester and McAlester 1984, 322.

 

 

Double-Pile Cottage with Front Extension

A double-pile structure of 1 or 1 1/2 stories, its roof form is a function of the size of the front extension placed to one side on the facade. Large extensions invite use of multiple-gable roofs as opposed to gables with dormers. A twentieth-century form, it derives from the traditional Double-pile Cottage.

Source: Jakle

Also see: Walker 1981, 91.

Double-Pile House (including the Georgian Plan or Four-Over-Four House)

A double-pile, 2- or 2 1/2—story structure with gable roof, most eighteenth- and nineteenth-century versions have paired rooms on either side of a central hallway on both floors (a). Chimney placement varies with paired gable-end chimneys typical, but flat-hipped roofs with paired interior chimneys are common also. Twentieth—century houses (Builders’ Colonial Houses) only approximate this traditional prototype. Central hallways are reduced or eliminated with the front door often opening directly into the living room which commonly occupies the full depth of the house on one side (b).

Source: Jakle

Also see: For eighteenth- and nineteenth-century versions, see Glassie 1968a, 49; Pillsbury and Kardos c. 1970, 56; Glassie 1972, 37; Lewis 1975, 5; Noble 1975, 290; Rifkind 1980, 21. For twentieth-century houses, see Stith and Meyer 1974, 4; Foley 1980, 214; Walker 1981, 75, 96, 173; McAlester and McAlester 1984, 78; Noble 1984, 47, 103.

 

Double-Pile House with Gambrel Roof

Double-pile, 2- or 2 1/2-story structures with gambrel roofs, most eighteenth- and nineteenth-century examples have paired rooms on either side of a central hallway on both floors. Twentieth-century houses only approximate this floor plan.

Source: Jakle

 

End-to-End Double House

IN THE END-TO-END DOUBLE HOUSE, THE SHARED or party wall is not readily perceived. Most of these houses did not have identical floor plans, so that they were less democratic and more hierarchical than twin houses. This condition is evident in the handling of entrances; one has primary street frontage and the other faces a side street or another building

Source: Gottfried & Jennings

·         dormer dormers

·         gable     intersecting gable, gambrel, or low hip roof

·         cladding               brick or clapboard

·         windows              symmetrical fenestration

·         entrance              front and side entrances

·         porch    small entry porch on street side, porch on side

English Bungalow

DURING THE 1920s AND 1930s MANY BUILDERS turned to an alternative bungalow design, the English bungalow. The planes suggested by low gables were filled in, so solid walls were tied to the gables. The open gable gave Way to mass in receding planes. The result was a compact brick or stucco house with successive gables and different motifs on each gable wall. The English bungalow included from one to three gables, a terrace usually on the street side, and an end-wall fireplace chimney. Gables were steep but not broad; one raking cornice of the gable often descended far below the wall line, even to ground level. Some gables served as screens behind which the entrance door was set, parallel to the street and hidden from view. Other features included varied window placement and size, combinations of cladding, a combination of roof forms (a hip on one end and clipped gable on the other), decorative louvers in the gables, arches, ornamental brickwork, and shingled roofs. All this produced a cozy five- or six-room house whose facade could look different from that of its neighbors…

Source: Gottfried & Jennings

·         roof       steeply pitched intersecting gables, clipped gable or hipped roof, gable carried to ground, gable pierced with rectangle or arched opening

·         cladding               brick or stucco

·         windows              paired or triple windows

·         door      door not visible from street

English Cottage

The English Cottage underwent a revival in the first few decades of this century. This picturesque cottage featured asymmetrical massing of steeply pitched roofs, stucco walls with clean edges, unusual window patterns, tall chimneys, and English detailing—all calculated to produce a charming, moderately rustic design. On plan, rooms were often clustered around a hall, and room sizes and shapes differed so as to provide new spatial experiences and opportunities for built-in furniture, a window treatment, and perhaps access to a terrace or a porch. These different interior spaces often projected from the main body of the house. Specific detailing included brick trim around openings, the use of Tudor framing in gables, some changes in materials, clipped gables, and high-contrast coloration…

Source: Gottfried & Jennings

·         roof       combination of short or long steeply pitched gables

·         walls      sometimes half-timber framing

·         chimney               large chimney

·         windows              multi-paned sash or casement windows

·         entrance              arched entry or door set in small gable

Flat-Front Rowhouse

THE FLAT-FRONT ROWHOUSE IS THE OLDER OF THE two types in this section, predating the Civil War. After the war it was both an Italianate and a more generally classical house. Little attention was given to detail, and organization was kept simple—three bays on the ground level and two or three bays on the second level. The flat or gable roof carried back over the three rooms of each floor. Some houses had a kitchen or pantry space behind the last room, with its own shed roof

Source: Gottfried & Jennings

·         roof       flat roof or very low gable roof

·         dormer sometimes dormer on roof

·         gable

·         cladding               brick

·         walls      sometimes cornice detailing, corbeling

·         chimney

·         windows              flat or segmental lintels, 1/1 window pattern, sometimes single cottage window on ground level

Four-Family Bay-Front

THE FOUR-FAMILY HOUSE IS THE LARGEST MULTI-family or apartment building to be discussed in this section. The bay-front type of “flats” building was a two-story rectangular structure. It combined the twin house and the two-family house, in that each side was often a mirror image of the other, but the four-family had two families per floor, each family having four or five rooms, a kitchen, and a bath

Source: Gottfried & Jennings

·         roof       flat or intersecting gable roof

·         walls      lateral divisions of façade wall

·         windows              multiple window groups, 1/1 major window pattern

·         entrance              central entrance flanked by bays or pavilions

Four-Family Portico-Front

STYLISTICALLY, THE PORTICO-FRONT WAS THE most deliberately historical of the four-family types. The portico itself was the dominant feature, being invariably two stories in height and carrying an entablature. The orders of architecture were varied, including Doric, Tuscan, Ionic, and Corinthian. The large portico was attached to flat-front buildings or set between flanking bays or pavilions. Portico composition included four columns evenly spaced or paired, with a wide center space for the entrance; most columns sat on blocks on a shallow porch. The second-floor porch was usually railed and served as a balcony for second-floor residents. The entablature was full but usually eclectic, using moldings and ornament not true to the order. Plain architraves and friezes were popular, and the cornice line carried dentils and projected from the entablature. Some moldings and the entire cornice were often carried around the building. Some of these fronts placed a low pediment on center, in line with the entrance, as a gesture toward the full temple front. Entablatures without a pediment substituted a balustrade

Source: Gottfried & Jennings

·         roof       flat roof with wide cornice and parapet

·         cladding               brick

·         entrance              central entrance

·         porch    large two story projecting portico

·         columns               4 columns, varied orders

Four-Family Villa

THE VILLA STYLE OF BUILDING WAS THE LAST IN the hipped cottage line. It had a well-organized facade derived from the Italian and Spanish-style villa in single-family houses. The walls were greatly influenced by the symmetrical fenestration and the central entrance, which led to a long vestibule. The roof forms were either flat across the entire structure, or had a gable parallel to the street with corner pediments on the front section and a flat roof on the remainder. Floor plans in the villas were similar to the other types—four- or five-room flats, side by side

Source: Gottfried & Jennings

·         roof       flat roof with parapet or gable roof with tile

·         cladding               brick

·         windows              multiple window groupings

·         door      French doors

·         entrance              entrance with arch, canopy, pediment, or hood

Four-square

Source: McAlester

Gabled-Ell Cottage

THE GABLED-ELL COTTAGE HAS “A LONG HISTORY of use in rural, small-town, and small-city development throughout the United States. One of the most ubiquitous house forms ever produced, it prevailed between 1870 and 1920. It was built in successive territories and states as the country developed from east to west…

Source: Gottfried & Jennings

·         roof       intersecting gables, sometimes one clipped gable

·         dormer not common

·         gable     shingles or stickwork

·         cladding               clapboard

·         walls      cornerboards tied to a fascia

·         chimney               interior brick

·         windows              cottage or paired on 1st floor façade, sometimes a bay window on side, often paired windows on 2nd-story façade, 1/1 major pattern

·         entrance              panel and glass door

·         porch    in spaces provided by ell

·         columns               turned posts with accompanying stickwork

Gable-front (2 units)

Source: McAlester

Gable-Front Double-Pile Cottage

A gabled, 2- or 21/2-story structure two rooms wide and two or more rooms deep, this house retains only the outward form of the double—pile house. Having a front door in one gable end facing the street, the varied floor plans of this house are substantial departures from the Georgian plan. Side-hall floor plans are common to nineteenth-century houses (a). Bungalow-related floor plans typify the twentieth century (b). Chimney placement varies.

Source: Jakle

Also see: Williams and Williams 1957, 80; Pillsbury and Kardos c. 1970, 28; Handlin 1979, 358; Hubka 1979, 220; McAlester and McAlester 1984, 78, 90; Noble 1984, 108.

 

Gable-Front Double-Pile House

A gabled, 1- or 11/2-story structure two rooms wide and two or more rooms deep, this cottage retains only the outward form of the double-pile cottage. With the front door in a gabled end facing the street, the realigned floor plans of this cottage lack the classical symmetry of the central hallway cottage. Side-hall floor plans are common to nineteenth-century structures (a). In twentieth-century structures, space is usually arranged as in bungalows with rooms back to back down each side of the dwelling (b). One or more large side dormers are frequently used to enlarge space in the half-story. Chimney placement varies.

Source: Jakle

Also see: For gable-front double-pile cottage, see McAlester and McAlester 1984, 90. For nineteenth-century structures, see Hubka 1979, 220.

 

 
Gambrel Cottage

The gambrel roof has contributed a cottage to the history of the vernacular house. Because of the shape and pitches of both sections of the roof, the gambrel encloses a great deal of second- or third-floor space. The house proper has the largest roof of the cottage types in which the roof is a principal design element. The shape of the roof is so forceful that it separates itself from the lower level, obliging builders to find ways to make sure that the roof did not overpower the entire structure. They did this by intersecting the roof, which broke the form down yet expanded the square footage. The intersection also produced cottage-type elevations where fenestration could be varied and changes in color and materials could be accommodated. These later changes in color and materials helped to layer the gambrel cottage. Clapboard lower stories and shingled upper stories were common. Clapboards contributed horizontal lines in the design. The cornice line and belt or string courses between floors also pulled the house away from the compaction implied by the roof

Source: Gottfried & Jennings

·         roof       gambrel, gable end perpendicular to street, or intersecting gambrel

·         dormer often gable dormers on side elevations

·         gable     returns on pent roof, changes in shingle pattern, stickwork, Palladian window, elliptical window, paired or triple windows

·         cladding               clapboard, shingle, combination – clapboard on 1st floor, shingles on 2nd floor

·         walls      high-contrast color between wall and trim

·         chimney               brick, interior

·         windows              double-hung sash, 1/1 and varieties of multiple upper lights, bay or oriel on side elevations, sometimes paired or triple windows on 2nd story façade

·         porch    across façade, sometimes cutaway porch

Gambrel-Front Double-Pile Cottage

A gambrel-roofed, 1- or 1 1/2-story dwelling two rooms wide and two or more rooms deep, this structure is a variant of the gable-front double-pile cottage. It appears in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries, and again as a twentieth-century revival.

Source: Jakle

 

Gambrel-Front Double-Pile House

A gambrel-roofed, 1- or 1 1/2-story dwelling two rooms wide and two or more rooms deep, this structure is a variant of the gablefront double-pile house. Although based on early nineteenth-century precedents, it was most popular as an early twentieth-century revival.

Source: Jakle

 

Hall and Parlor Cottage (Double-Pen Cabin)

Elemental extension of the hall cottage (or single-pen cabin) through the addition of a second room or parlor produces a 1- or 1V2-story structure that is two rooms wide and one room deep with a gable roof. Regional variation in chimney placement affected the appearance of these cottages during the colonial period. A central chimney and lobby entrance arrangement was typical in New England (a) whereas endgable chimneys (either inside or outside) prevailed elsewhere (b). This form continued to be built until the end of the nineteenth century.

Source: Jakle

Also see: Finley and Scott 1940, 416; Morrison 1952, 162; Pillsbury and Kardos c. 1970, 27; Newton 1971, 7; Bastian 1977, 124; Swaim 1978, 33; Hubka 1979, 222; Foley 1980, 16; Marshall 1981, 41; Patrick 1981, 62; Walker 1981, 40, 60, 62, 77; McAlester and McAlester 1984, 78, 80, 83, 94; Noble 1984, 49.

 

Hall and Parlor House (Pre-Classic I House or Early I House)

The plan of the hall and parlor cottage (or double-pen cabin) was commonly used in two-story houses in the nineteenth century (a). Structures were frequently enlarged with rear extensions which gave houses an overall L or T shape (b).

Source: Jakle

Also see: Glassie 1968a, 68; Glassie 1972, 45; Marshall 1981, 41; Patrick 1981, 64; Walker 1981, 53; McAlester and McAlester 1984, 78.

 

 

Hall Cottage (including the Single-Pen Cabin)

A simple one-room module with gable roof (often with a loft or half-story) and a fireplace and chimney at one end, this structure was built of heavy framing by the earliest English colonists. Dwellings of this form were constructed along routes of migration outward from the Delaware Valley. This basic house type persisted after the adoption of balloon frame construction well into the nineteenth century. Floor outlines typically approximated 16 by 16 feet: the size of space comfortably warmed by a single fireplace. These dimensions (the standard bay) may have deeper roots in European culture as the traditional size of building used for stabling oxen.

Source: Jakle

Also see: Kelly 1924, 6; Williams and Williams 1957, 71; Glassie 1968a, 53; Pillsbury and Kardos c. 1970, 24; Newton 1971, 6; Ieane and Purcell 1978, 8; Swaim 1978, 29; Hubka 1979, 222; Marshall 1981, 41; Walker 1981, 42, 46, 50, 56, 66, 74; McAlester and McAlester 1984, 80, 83; Noble 1984, 44.

 

 

Hall-and-parlor (2 and 3 units)

Source: McAlester

Hipped Bungalow

THE HIPPED BUNGALOW IS THE MOST CLASSICAL of bungalow designs. The low hip roof serves as a pediment for three or four columns that carry a restrained entablature. This temple-front building is relieved by a hipped dormer, an open porch rail, and pedestals for the columns. The structure is low to the ground and utilizes the full width of the facade for a porch. The bungalow is built with wood-frame construction, and clapboard cladding is most common. Other cladding materials include stucco, hollow concrete tile, cement block, and shingle in rustic or Craftsman-style bungalows

Source: Gottfried & Jennings

·         roof       hipped, flared eaves common, main roof usually covers front porch

·         dormer central front

·         cladding               clapboard

·         walls      cornerboards, sometimes flared walls, exposed rafters

·         chimney               brick interior

·         windows              cottage on façade, 1/1 double-hung on elevations, symmetrical fenestration

·         porch    extends across façade, variation: cutaway porch

·         columns               Tuscan, 3 or 4 support porch, sometimes pedestals and columns

Hipped Cottage

The hipped cottage was a generic house type that was built throughout most of the 1870-1940 period. It had the unique ability to be rendered in many styles, from Italianate to prairie, and could be adapted to most climatic conditions. This cottage was a classic box characterized by a large hipped roof, an almost square floor plan, and compact massing often cubical in shape. In many parts of the country it has been called a four-square. But no matter what its name or form, it is a substantial and dignified house

Source: Gottfried & Jennings

·         roof       hipped

·         dormer central hipped

·         cladding               clapboard

·         walls      cornerboards or pilasters carry a fascia or entablature, stone, brick, cast-concrete foundation

·         chimney               1 end-wall, brick

·         windows              large window on 1st-floor façade, 1/1 double-hung, variable fenestration

·         entrance              asymmetrically located, panel and glass door

·         porch    extends across entire façade, open rail with vertical balusters

·         columns               Doric or Ionic

I Cottage

A 1- or 1 1/2-story version of the I house, this structure is one room deep and two rooms wide with a central hallway. Gabled roofs predominate. End chimneys are prevalent in nineteenth-century cottages (a). I cottages are commonly enlarged with rear extensions which gave them an overall L or T shape (b).

Source: Jakle

Also see: Swaim 1978, 41; Ieane and Purcell 1978, 8; Marshall 1981, 41; Walker 1981, 121.

 

I House

This 2- or 21/2-story structure is one room deep with two rooms wide with a central hallway on each floor. Chimneys in the gable walls are common on nineteenth-century houses. I houses are often enlarged with rear extensions which give them an overall L or T shape in perimeter outline (see I Cottage, Figure B, above).

Source: Jakle

Also see: Kniffen 1936, 187; Kniffen 1965, 553; Glassie 1968a, 49; Pillsbury and Kardos c. 1970, 53; Newton 1971, 10; Glassie 1972, 44; Montell and Morse 1976, 32; Marshall 1981, 41; Patrick 1981, 63; Walker 1981, 74; McAlester and McAlester 1984, 80, 96.

I house (2 and 3 units)

Source: McAlester

Incised-Porch Bungalow

This gabled, 1- or 11/2-story, double-pile structure features an incised or inset porch built into the structure (as opposed to being attached shed-style). Eaves of the low- to moderately-pitched roof are extended outward on all sides. Large dormers may be used both front and back to provide additional space in the half-story. Floor plans vary as do chimney placements. Generally, rooms connect one another without use of large hallways, and the front door opens directly into the living room. The main axis of the structure is parallel to the street. Such bungalows, as promoted by commercial builders, were most popular just prior to World War I.

Source: Jakle

Also see: Finley and Scott 1940, 414; Lancaster 1958, 241; Mattson 1981, 75.

 

Incised-Porch Cottage (including the Creole Cottage)

This gabled (and sometimes hipped), 1- or 1V2-story, double-pile cottage features an incised or inset porch built into the structure (as opposed to being attached shed-style). The porch is an integral part of the structure. Floor plans vary with two large front rooms, and either two or three smaller rooms variously arranged behind. Central or paired interior chimneys predominate in nineteenth-century “Creole Cottages” in the South. This general structure type also appeared in the nineteenth century Middle West, especially in areas of French and German settlement. The Incised-Porch Cottage may have inspired development of the Incised-Porch Bungalow in the twentieth century.

Source: Jakle

Also see: For nineteenth-century “Creole Cottages,” see Kniffen 1936, 182; Glassie 1968a, 118; Newton 1971, 13; Jeane and Purcell 1978, 22; Fricker 1984, 137.

 

Incised-Porch House

This structure is a 2- or 2 1/2-story version of the incised-porch cottage. It has a gabled (and sometimes hipped) roof, but is distinguished by an incised or inset “gallerieporch that is an integral part of the structure. Floor plans vary with two large front rooms and either two or three smaller rooms behind. Central chimneys or paired interior chimneys predominate in nineteenth-century houses.

Source: Jakle

Also see: Morrison 1952, 263; Walker 1981, 86.

 

Italianate Hipped Cottage

The Italianate version of the hipped cottage is one of the oldest subtypes of the period under study. Italianate design predates and postdates the Civil War. Early Italian styles tend toward the Tuscan, which usually includes a pronounced tower. The vernacular hipped cottage is more generally Italian. It has a strong vertical orientation centered on vertical alignment between stories, including multistory bay windows and elaborate design schemes on the axis of the entrance. The roof profile is low, which reinforces the upward thrust of the facade, and many cottages are topped by a belvedere, which helps to extend the building visually. The vernacular Italianate is an ornamented style: it uses brackets or modillions and quoins to articulate the edges of forms; moldings, pronounced lintels, and sills to add texture and articulate the fenestration; and brackets, pendants, and cut or turned pieces to ornament porches and other entrances

Source: Gottfried & Jennings

·         roof       hip with flat or low pitched hip roof, sometimes a cupola or belvedere, large brackets (often paired), wide eaves

·         dormer none

·         cladding               brick

·         walls      sometimes quoins, string course

·         chimney               1 or 2 end-wall or interior

·         windows              tall narrow, symmetrical fenestration, stone lintels or surrounds, stone sills, sometimes paired, circle-top or bay windows

·         entrance              single or paired panel doors

·         porch    often extends across façade

·         columns               turned posts with accompanying stickwork

L-Shaped Cottage

Like the upright and wing house this structure is L-shaped in perimeter outline. However, the floor plan is usually integrated under a single multiple-gable roof forming either a 1- or 1 1/2-story dwelling. Floor plans vary as does chimney placement. The angle of the L frequently contains a shed-type porch with the front door usually in the “wing.” This section is usually parallel to the street.

Source: Jakle

Also see: Finley and Scott 1940, 415; McAlester and McAlester 1984, 206.

 

L-Shaped House (Yankee House)

Probably a derivative of the upright and wing house, this L-shaped structure preserves a “temple and wing” effect. However, its integrated floor plan does not preserve the integrity of each house section as a separate unit as at least one room occupies space in both sections. Usually, this late nineteenth-century form is capped by a multiple-gable roof. Floor plans vary as does chimney placement. The angle of the L frequently contains a shed-type porch. The front door is usually in the “wingsection (the section parallel to the street).

Source: Jakle

Also see: Finley and Scott 1940, 415; Marshall 1981, 35.

 

 

Mansard Cottage

Throughout 1870-80 the cottage with a mansard roof was referred to as a French cottage, and historians link this cottage to the development of the Second Empire style. In vernacular design the French cottage was less Second Empire than the design of high-style buildings, and it was more generally French. One could argue that it was a hybrid affair with Italianate features, and that over time it absorbed other kinds of cottage detailing.

Source: Gottfried & Jennings

·         roof       mansard (full story high), usually straight-sided or convex, wood, slate, or composition shingles, sometimes cresting

·         dormer multiple dormers

·         cladding               clapboard, brick

·         walls      sometimes high foundation brackets in eaves, elaborate cornices

·         chimney               interior, tall stacks

·         windows              tall, narrow, 2/2 or 1/1 pattern, bay windows common

·         entrance              panel door, sometimes paired, sometimes hood over entrance

·         porch    small entrance porch, or porch covers façade, columns, brackets

Massed-side gable (4 and 6 units)

Source: McAlester

Minimal Ranch “House”

A one-story structure with low-pitched roof (usually gable), this dwelling is a scaled down version of the ranchhouse.” The garage, if existent, is most commonly a separate structure. This form, developed after World War II, is still popular with tradesmen who build on speculation.

Source: Jakle

Also see: Foley 1980, 220; Walker 1981, 237, 243, 244.

 

 
New England Classic Cottage (including the One-and-One-Half New England Cottage)

Like the Cape Cod cottage, this structure derived in the early nineteenth century from the central chimney hall and parlor cottage of New England. Two front rooms sit at either side of an entrance lobby from which a stairway ascends to two rooms in a half—story. Several smaller rooms are arranged across the first floor rear. Commonly, “lie-on-your-stomach” or “ankle” windows located below the eave of the gable roof (often in an entablature) light the upstairs rooms.

Source: Jakle

Also see: Hamlin 1944, 303; Lewis 1975, 10; Noble 1984, 105.

 

Octagon House

This structure, something of a curiosity of the mid to late nineteenth century, has an octagonal or near-octagonal perimeter outline, although extensions off the rear are common. Floor arrangement and chimney placement varies.

Source: Jakle

Also see: Fowler 1854, 1; Creese 1946, 89; Peat 1962, 92; Foley 1980, 159; Walker 1981, 140; McAlester and McAlester 1984, 235; Noble 1984, 139.

 

One-Half Cape Cod Cottage (Hose Cape Cod Cottage)

Here the full Cape Cod cottage of the early nineteenth century is reduced to one-half its size. This 1 1/2-story gabled structure has one large room in front with two smaller rooms behind.

Source: Jakle

Also see: Connally 1960, 50; Walker 1981, 88.

 

One-Over-One House (Bandbox House or Stack House)

A set of one-room modules stacked to a height of two or three stories, this eighteenth- and nineteenth-century structure was usually capped by a gable roof.

Source: Jakle

Also see: Murtaugh 1957, 9; Marshall 1981, 41; Walker 1981, 74.

 

One-Over-One House With Rear Extension (City House)

One-over-one houses could be enlarged on a narrow urban lot by adding a one- or two-story rear extension. The extension was usually narrower than the front block and was normally aligned with one of the side walls. This form was most popular in the late eighteenth century.

Source: Jakle

Also see: Murtaugh 1957, 11.

 

One-Third Double-Pile Cottage

A 1- or 11/2-story structure with gable roof, this cottage, common in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries, is a reduced version of the two-thirds double-pile cottage. It is two rooms deep and one room wide. As in the gable-front shotgun cottage, there is no side hall.

Source: Jakle

 

One-Third Double-Pile House (Two-Bay Town House)

A 2- or 2 1/2—story structure with gable or hip roof, this house is two rooms deep. It is, in essence, the double—pile house reduced by two-thirds. Similar to the gable-front shotgun house, it does not contain a side hall, the staircase being located in the front room. Chimney placement varies. Common to the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, this form has not enjoyed revived popularity in the twentieth century as has the two-thirds double-pile house.

Source: Jakle

Also see: Murtaugh 1957, 10; Glassie 1972, 38.

Open-Gable Cottage

A cottage with a wide gable and plain form. It could just as well be called the flush-wall, center-axis cottage, because these features characterize its design, but that would be an awkward label. The open-gable was built for almost 50 years throughout most of the country. It has been a two-story house, though there were one-and-a-half story versions clad in brick, shingle, and clapboard, the last being the most prevalent. The open-gable cottage has clean lines, simple form, and no projections off the façade; it carries the façade wall up into the gable, with no distinction between façade and gable until the early 1890s. This house has a classical orientation, in that the façade is a linear temple front in which thin corner boards or pilasters carry a low, wide pediment. The introduction of cornice returns reinforces this impression. The façade is organized around a center axis running from the apex of the gable to the ground level. Able windows are placed on or along the side axis, and porches with three posts have the middle post placed on the same line. What detailing appears is often derived from bungalow or Craftsman designs.

Source: Gottfried & Jennings

·         roof       gable, perpendicular to street

·         dormer sometimes on side elevation

·         gable     open

·         cladding               clapboard

·         walls      cornerboards, façade and elevations usually flat

·         chimney               interior brick

·         windows              1 or 2 centered in gable, symmetrical fenestration, 1/1 major pattern

·         entrance              panel and glass door

·         porch    extends across façade with steps to side, often shed roof on porch, often enclosed porch

·         columns               square posts common

Organic Cottage

Source: Gottfried & Jennings

·         roof       multiple roof forms, steep pitches, central hip predominates

·         dormer gable, sometimes multiples

·         gable     gable finish

·         cladding               clapboard or clapboard and shingle combinations

·         walls      divided into panels, patterned surfaces

·         chimney               interior brick, corbeled caps

·         windows              variety in placement and grouping

·         door      panel and glass, sometimes transom

·         porch    verandas with turned posts and brackets or Tuscan columns with entablature

·         columns               door off-center

Organic Cottage

This cottage had a central plan – a strong feeling for centrality through living halls, circulation around a core, and tension between centrifugal and centripetal forces. Common design characteristics were a tall center, in that the central plan was expressed through vertical thrust; asymmetrical massing; patterned textures on exterior surfaces; projecting gables and bays; interconnected interior and exterior spaces; and either a steep roof on the centripetal types or a low, close-to-the-ground roof in centrifugal types.

Source: Gottfried & Jennings

 

·         roof       multiple roof forms, steep pitches, central hip predominates

·         dormer gable, sometimes multiples

·         gable     gable finish

·         cladding               clapboard or clapboard and shingle combinations

·         walls      divided into panels, patterned surfaces

·         chimney               interior brick, corbeled caps

·         windows              variety in placement and grouping

·         door      panel and glass, sometimes transom

·         porch    verandas with turned posts and brackets or Tuscan columns with entablature

·         columns               door off-center

Pedimented Bungalow

DURING THE 19205. ANOTHER VERSION OF THE bungalow began to appear. It was a five- or six-room house that had an intersecting gable roof, with the first gable parallel to the street, covering the two front rooms, and the second roof perpendicular to the street, covering the remaining rooms. Whatever the motif, the facade had an entrance pediment. In some cases the porch was small and served the entrance door with a hood or a small portico. Other versions extended the porch across the facade, with a pediment marking the entrance. Pediments were triangular or curvilinear. Pergolas were also used as a porch covering, and the pediment and pergola were joined. Occasionally the pergola would extend beyond the porch to become a porte-cochere

Source: Gottfried & Jennings

·         roof       low roof parallel to street, clipped gable

·         walls      water table

·         chimney               chimney

·         windows              paired windows

·         porch    small porch with pediment and columns

Plains Cottage

SOME VERNACULAR HOUSE TYPES HAVE NOT BEEN formally identified as having a particular style. One of these is the plains cottage, the development period of which coincides with the growth of Queen Anne, Eastlake, and shingle-style cottages. The plains cottage is an extant house type that sits on railroad lots in towns between the Mississippi River and the west slope of the Rocky Mountains. It was also built in the south; in Biloxi, Mississippi, it is referred to as a “bayed cottage.”…

Source: Gottfried & Jennings

·         roof       combinations of straight gable, intersecting gables, clipped gable, or gable-hip

·         dormer rare

·         gable     textured and decorative, shingles, bargeboard, gable, ornamentation, pent roof

·         cladding               clapboard, sometimes brick

·         walls      narrow cornerboards

·         chimney               interior brick

·         windows              one decorative window on façade, cottage, queen Anne, or bay

·         door      panel and glass, sometimes transom

·         porch    delicate turned posts, spindle frieze, brackets, stickwork, balustrade

Prairie Cottage

The prairie-style hipped cottage appears to have been both a natural outgrowth of the development of the hipped cottage, and an outright borrowing of prairie motifs. Like the four-square, the prairie found receptive builders and owners on the prairies and plains. Indeed, some of the literature of the period referred to this preference for the unconventional stucco house as a “popular Western tendency.” The vernacular prairie cottage never abandoned the almost square plan and cubical shape of the prototype. However, it did have strong horizontal lines transmitted by its low roof and wide eaves. On the facade the porch roof and the banded windows reinforced the horizontal thrust of the main roof. The prairie cottage often had a stucco finish that gave it a monolithic quality, which even so was relieved by wood strips. Other prairie wall treatments included a type that used one kind of cladding on three-quarters of the elevations and a second cladding on the last quarter.

Source: Gottfried & Jennings

·         roof       low pitched hip roof, wide projecting eaves

·         cladding               stucco

·         walls      wood strips of contrasting color, belt course between floors

·         windows              horizontal band of windows

·         entrance              decorative side entrance

·         porch    screened in or enclosed sun porch

Pyramidal

Source: McAlester

Pyramidal Cottage

This version of the square cottage (a structure two rooms wide and two rooms deep without central hallway) has a peaked-hip roof (sometimes truncated near the top). Stoves and associated chimneys are variously placed, although in structures with central heating a single chimney located at the peak of the roof is common. This form was most popular between 1890 and 1910.

Source: Jakle

Also see: Finley and Scott 1940, 417; Newton 1971, 17; Lewis 1975, 20; Bastian 1977, 126; Jeane and Purcell 1978, 21.

Raised Ranch House (Split Entry House)

This post-World War II two-story structure is organized around a central stairway located immediately inside the front door. Generally, the upper or main level is reached by a half-flight of stairs as one enters the front door. There the living room, dining-room, kitchen, and principal bedrooms are located. On the level below are additional bedrooms, utility space, and a garage. Floor plans vary.

Source: Jakle

Also see: Stith and Meyer 1974, 6.

Ranch “House”

A 1- or 11/2-story double—pile structure with low-pitched roof (either gable or hip), this form was popularized very rapidly after World War II by commercial builders. Interior floor plans vary. Garages may or may not be integrated into the structure.

Source: Jakle

Also see: Rickert 1967, 234; Stith and Meyer 1974, 3; Walker 1981, 235.

 

Ranch Bungalow

A one story double-pile structure with low pitched roof (usually a gable-front or hip roof) this post-World War II structure looks like a ranchhouseturned with the narrow end toward the street. Interior space, however, is organized in bungalow fashion with rooms arranged one behind the other. Incised corner porches are common. A garage is often attached to one side.

Source: Jakle

Rectilinear Cottage

The rectilinear hipped cottage was especially popular in the plains states. In the decade following 1910 this square-looking version of the hipped cottage developed as an alternative to the Italianate and Queen Anne styles. Eschewing ornamental details, the rectilinear builder changed color at the upper level, changed materials, used trim boards or belt courses that framed the Walls into panels, and modified window placement. The rectilinear was a practical design that paralleled the development of the prairie-style design. The first floor of the rectilinear cottage contained social and service areas organized in an open plan, while the second floor had the usual array of bedrooms and a bath

Source: Gottfried & Jennings

·         roof       overhanging eaves, exposed rafters

·         cladding               belt course, change in color between floors

·         windows              prairie and bungalow windows

·         porch    square posts or columns with pedestals

Saddlebag Cabin or Cottage

A widely used method of extending a 1- or 1 1/2—story single-pen log cabin was to add another pen, its gable set up to the chimney end of the original structure. This method of enlargement produced a central-chimney dwelling two rooms wide and one room deep. The plan was widely replicated in the nineteenth century in frame construction. L and T extensions were common.

Source: Jakle

Also see: Morrison 1952, 168; Kniffen 1965, 562; Newton 1971, 7; Ieane and Purcell 1978, 18; Marshall 1981, 41; Walker 1981, 5o; McAlester and McAlester 1984, 83, 95; Noble 1984, 116.

 

Saddlebag House (Saddlebag I House)

The saddlebag plan was also used in two-story houses in the nineteenth century.

Source: Jakle

Also see: Marshall 1981, 41.

 

Salt Box House

An enlarged hall and parlor house of the late seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries associated primarily with New England. This structure, with lobby entrance fronting a central chimney, features a lean-to ex- tension across the rear. The gable roof covering the extension assumes a “salt box” or “cat slide” profile in side view.

Source: Jakle

Also see: Kimball 1922, 33; Morrison 1952, 54; Williams and Williams 1957, 60; Glassie 1968a, 1%; Pillsbury and Kardos c. 1970, 25; Cummings 1979, 24, 32-33, 70, 80, 86, 123~24, 138, 149; Foley 1980, 22; Rifkind 1980, 7; Walker 1981, 68, 257; McAlester and McAlester 1984, 78; Noble 1984, 25.

Shot-gun (1 unit)

Source: McAlester

Shotgun Cottage

A single-story structure, one room wide and two or more rooms deep, this long linear cottage is usually capped by a gable-front roof. Hip roofs are also common as are shed-type front porches. Middle rooms frequently have a side exterior door. Chimney placement varies. This form was first introduced in the early nineteenth century.

Source: Jakle

Also see: Kniffen 1936, 186; Finley and Scott 1940, 417; Newton 1971, 15; Vlach 1976, 52; Rifldnd 1980, 94; Noble 1984, 95.

Shotgun House

One room wide and two or more rooms deep, this two—story version of the nineteenth—century shotgun cottage has either a gable-front or hip roof. Chimney and stairway placements vary. Shed-type front porches are typical as are exterior side doors that give access to a middle room.

Source: Jakle, Gottfried & Jennings

·         roof       gable or hip

·         gable     usually undecorated, sometimes decorative shingles

·         cladding               clapboard, board and batten, sometimes brick

·         walls      cornerboards

·         chimney               interior

·         windows              1/1 double-hung sash, 1 or 2 front windows, sometimes a cottage window on façade

·         door      off-center, panel and glass, sometimes transom

·         porch    shallow, turned posts, shed or hip roof, sometimes steep and hood

Southern Bungalow (Shotgun Bungalow)

With a front-gable or hip roof, this 1- or 11/2-story, double-pile structure differs from incised-porch and cottage bungalows in that the main axis of the structure is perpendicular to the street. Eaves of the low-pitch roof are extended outward on all sides. Large side-dormers commonly provide additional space in the half-story. Floor plans vary. Generally, rooms connect one another without use of large hallways, the front door opening directly into the living room. The “Chicago bungalow,” a common variation of the southern bungalow, has a hip roof extending over the front porch which is partially enclosed as a front room. As with other bungalows, this form was most popular prior to World War I.

Source: Jakle

Also see: Kniffen 1936, 186; Finley and Scott 1940, 414; Newton 1971, 15.

Spanish Bungalow

The Spanish Bungalow – like so many variations on the bungalow theme—developed after 1910. Geographically, it emerged in California, the southwest, and Florida. Examples of the style may be found in other sections of the country, but they are not as numerous as in the Sunbelt climates. Throughout its development the bungalow has lent itself to the imposition of fronts on a basic plan. The Spanish bungalow is related to the English style, in that a gable plays an important role in facade design. The gable may be triangular or curvilinear, and the gable portion often projects in front of the main body of the house. Beyond this single gable, arches or even arcades organize other sections of the facade

Source: Gottfried & Jennings

·         roof       low pitched, red tile roof

·         gable     one gable facing the street

·         cladding               stucco

·         chimney               end-wall chimney

·         windows              round-headed multipane, paired or triple windows on façade

·         door      round-headed V-joint door

·         entrance              round-headed openings

·         porch    small porch and adjoining terrace

·         decoration          exposed wood, iron work

Split-Level Ranch “House”

This multi-level structure is comprised of a one-story section (which contains the living room, dining room, and kitchen) and a 1 1/2- or 2-story section (commonly an L or T extension which contains the bedrooms with a garage below). The various levels, and, indeed, the two sections, are joined by a central staircase. A pair of gabled roofs covers the whole. Room arrangements vary. First introduced in the 1930s, this form did not become widespread until after 1950.

Source: Jakle.

Also see: Rickert 1967, 238; Foley 1980, 221; Walker 1981, 262.

Square Cottage

This 1- or 1 1/2-story, gable—roofed structure is two rooms wide and two rooms deep. It is very similar in appearance to the double-pile cottage; however, the absence of a central hallway produces a square or nearly square floor plan. Stoves and associated chimney columns are variously placed. This form was most popular between 1890 and 1910.

Source: Jakle

Suburban Cottage

The suburban cottage takes its name from its design and location. Throughout a forty-year period, this cottage evolved from a narrow city cottage into a wide-bodied colonial cottage with a large lot or prominent siting. The house remained rectangular on plan and in shape and carried its full two-and-a-half-story height throughout its development. In the 1880s the structure presented its straight gable roof to the street with moldings that spanned the gable and turned it into a pediment. The facade carried a bay window on one or both stories, as well as on a side elevation. The entrance porch was small, with a modest but ornamented hood over the entrance. Queen Anne detailing was present on the porch in the form of turned posts and brackets, and in the gable. Often there were two kinds of cladding, or changes in cladding pattern

Source: Gottfried & Jennings

·         roof       straight gable, large overhang

·         dormer often large dormers on side

·         gable     closed, wide, projects beyond house, a pent

·         cladding               clapboard, gable cladding different from house

·         walls      cornerboards, sometimes 2-story bays on side

·         chimney               brick, interior

·         windows              symmetrical fenestration, 1/1 major pattern, sometimes bay on façade, Palladian in gable

·         entrance              panel and glass door

·         porch    wide, across façade, sometimes veranda

·         columns               Ionic, Tuscan

Three-Quarters Cape Cod Cottage (House-and-a-Half Cape Cod Cottage

Like a Cape Cod cottage of the early nineteenth century but reduced one-fourth in size, this structure is two rooms deep and two rooms wide: the lobby entrance having been eliminated with one chimney column moved into a reduced front room.

Source: Jakle

Also see: Connally 1960, 51; Walker 1981, 88.

Triple Decker

THE TRIPLE DECKER, A UNIQUE MULTIFAMILY structure, originated in New England mill towns and cities. Constructed from about 1870 to 1920, the triple decker, could absorb cottage details even though it had outgrown the cottage scale. Most were long, rectangular buildings with the narrow side toward the street that provided three living spaces, one family to a floor. Most stacked one unit over the next, and ground-level motifs were repeated throughout an elevation. The main entrance, which might have an entrance porch, was on one side of the facade. Bay windows were common on either the facade or a side elevation. Roof treatments included flat roofs with an overhanging cornice, and gable-to-the-street roofs with a closed gable. Regardless of the facade porch treatment, most of these buildings had rear-access porches on all three levels…

Source: Gottfried & Jennings

·         roof       flat roof

·         gable     sometimes gable roof

·         cladding               clapboard

·         walls      overhanging cornice, horizontal division of walls

·         porch    rear porches, sometimes open porches on front

Two-Family Hipped Cottage

THE HIPPED COTTAGE TWO-FAMILY HOUSE HAS some of the characteristics of the suburban type, in that the facade is classical and access to the second floor is through a side-hall stair. The organization of the facade also relies on the kind of classical design vocabulary used in colonial revival buildings. Both floors have an order of architecture, with the first-story columns under the second-floor pilasters. The second-floor entablature carries a fascia board around the house. The Wide hip roof understates the temple front. The facade is divided into a large panel with two lights on the second story and a five-part composition on the first: entrance, three-sided bay window capped by a three-sided balustrade, and entrance. Overall, the facade has a horizontal emphasis that is echoed in the side elevations, which are long and broken only by a bay Window on one side. The house is twice as long as it is wide…

Source: Gottfried & Jennings

·         roof       hip roof with central dormer

·         cladding               clapboard

·         windows              2-story bay on side elevation, 1/1 double hung windows

·         porch    shallow porch with columns and entablature

Two-Family Suburban

DESIGN OF THE TWO-FAMILY HOUSE FOLLOWED design developments in cottages. The suburban two-family cottage employed large-scale geometric elements, such as a broad gable roof and a two-story, three-sided bay window that was answered by the formal porches. The facade divided into two “columns,” the bay and the porches, topped by a pediment. Subsequent breakdowns of the large forms included five vertical bays-—three in the bay window and two in the porch section—and a pair of centered windows in the gable that divided on center, making each side a mirror image of the other. Horizontal divisions were at the water table, the floor line between stories, and the cornice that closed the gable. The windows were placed at the same distance from the floor and ceiling on both levels, so that they looked like a band of evenly spaced windows. The massing of elements on the facade relied on the push-pull balance between the projecting bay window and the recessed porches. The porches were detailed with columns and open rails that helped activate the surface and provided opportunity for the

play of light and shadow

Source: Gottfried & Jennings

·         roof       pent roof

·         gable     closed gable perpendicular to street, decorative shingles in gable

·         cladding               clapboard or shingle

·         windows              windows in attic, 2-story bay window on façade

·         porch    porch on both levels

Two-Thirds Double-Pile Cottage

A 1- or 1 1/2-story structure with gable roof, this cottage is two rooms deep and one room wide with a side hall containing a staircase to an upper half-story. This plan is essentially the double-pile cottage reduced one-third in size. A flat-hipped roof version usually has a rear extension. This structure was very popular in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. In New Jersey this type of dwelling, although often enlarged by a one-room deep lateral extension, is referred to as a Deep East Jersey.

Source: Jakle

Also see: For late eighteenth- and early nineteenth-century structures, see Glassie 1968a, 54. For Deep East Jersey, see Wacker 1971, 51, 53.

Two-Thirds Double-Pile House

A 2- or 2 1/2-story structure with gable roof, this house is two rooms deep and one room wide with a side hall containing a staircase (a). In essence, this plan is the double-pile house reduced one-third in size. Such reduction accommodated the classical Georgian house to a narrow urban lot, although the plan also became popular in rural Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Maryland, and Virginia in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. Rural farmhouses were often enlarged through lateral extensions: appendages slightly set back from the line of the main house facade (b). Gable roofs predominated, but low hip roofs were common also. In twentieth-century derivatives, the side hall is reduced or eliminated with the front door sometimes opening into the living room (c).

Source: Jakle

Also see: Glassie 1968a, 54; Glassie 1972, 37; Lewis 1975, 6; Walker 1981, 75.

Two-Thirds Double-Pile House with Gambrel Roof

This two-thirds double-pile structure (two rooms with a side hall) has a gambrel roof. Twentieth-century revival houses only approximate nineteenth-century prototypes.

Source: Jakle

 

Two-Thirds Double-Pile House with Rear Extension (Town House or Three-Bay Town House)

A two-thirds double-pile house could be enlarged on a narrow urban lot by adding a one- or two-story rear extension. Extensions were usually narrower than the front block and Carried back on one original side wall. This form was most popular in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries.

Source: Jakle.

Also see: Murtaugh 1957, 11; Rifkind 1980, 27.

 

Two-Thirds I House (Half I House)

Two—thirds of an I house or one-half of an I house, depending upon the importance assigned the hallways, this 2- or 2 1/2-story structure is one room deep with a hallway and a single room on each floor. Like I houses (see above), these structures were commonly enlarged with rear L or T extensions. The form was introduced in the eighteenth century, remaining popular throughout the nineteenth.Source: Jakle

Also see: For two-thirds I house, see Glassie 1968a, 67; for one-half I house, see Montell and Morse 1976, 40.

Upright and Wing House (Temple Form House or Lazy “I” House)

Having evolved in New England and Upstate New York in the nineteenth century, this structure combines the New England classic cottage with the gable front double-pile house (or variations of the two) to form an L-shaped or T—shaped dwelling. The taller gable-front section was especially appropriate to Classical Revival styling and was responsible for the temple and wing label. Interior floor plans vary, although each section of the house usually stands as a unit with rooms totally contained within one part or the other. The roofs of both sections are totally separate in older dwellings of this sort: the gable of the “wing” usually joining the “upright” below the latter’s eave line (a). In a later variety the roof of the “wing” intercepted that of the upright somewhere on its slope (b). The front door is usually in the “wingsection. Many houses were built in stages, the “upright” reflecting a later stage of family prosperity.

Source: Jakle

Also see: Hamlin 1944, 306; Glassie 1968a, 132; Pillsbury and Kardos c. 1970, 29; Stith and Meyer 1974, 5; Lewis 1975, 13; Bastian 1977, 116; Walker 1981, 111, 127; McAlester and McAlester 1984, 93; Noble 1984, 109.

 

Villa

The villa form of the hipped cottage was the most formal and most historic of all the designs in this group. It abandoned the square and the cube for a rectangular shape that measured about 40 by 25 feet, with the long side facing the street. The villa developed from 1910 on, and early examples reflect prairie style influences on cottage design. By the 192Os the villa began to exhibit four design motifs: Italian, Spanish, French, and an eclectic type that is generally Mediterranean. By the 1980s a fifth type had appeared—an abstracted classical design featuring giant pilasters on the facade and the styling of the architect Paul Cret…

Source: Gottfried & Jennings

·         roof       hip with flat, clay tile roof or shingles with cresting

·         cladding               stucco

·         chimney               end wall

·         windows              symmetrical fenestration, casement or sash, often paired or triple, often French doors as windows

·         entrance              elaborate and formal, door recessed slightly from façade, surrounded by moldings, sometimes a hood

·         columns               panel door

·         decoration          generally Mediterranean-wrought iron, cartouche, rustication, pronounced sills and lintels, latticework