Architecture / Type / Domestic

Also see Architecture Type index.

Also see Architecture index.

 

Airplane Bungalow

THE AIRPLANE BUNGALOW IS ANOTHER TYPE that emerged during the 1920s. The appellation “airplane” seems to have been applied after this style appeared on the market. This type was an attempt—modest at first—to extend the bungalow on the horizontal and accent the vertical. The low gable roof forms are the key to the design. The gables are contiguous and successive as in other structures, but the massing of roofs is quite different. Not only are roofs built so that they grow out of each other on the facade, but gables abut the main roof on the side elevations. Smaller gables cover the second-floor sections. This kind of house looks accretive, in that sections could have been added arbitrarily to the base structure, but that is not the case. All the roof and frame sections are tightly integrated, and there is nothing accidental about the design

Source: Gottfried & Jennings

·         roof       low pitched gable roofs, overhanging eaves

·         windows             proportion of windows to wall (cottage, paired, triple windows)

·         porch    large deep porch on two sides

Bay-Front Double House

THE BAY-FRONT DOUBLE HOUSE, PRIMARILY A nineteenth-century building, was a two- or three-story structure With several roof options: a mansard roof, a gable roof with the ridge parallel to the street, or a flat roof and accompanying parapet. The primary design scheme required a full-height, usually three-sided bay window or pavilion on each end that flanked a double entrance. The bays terminated in their own roofs. Dormers were frequently built on these units to utilize attic space, especially on those with mansard roofs

Source: Gottfried & Jennings

·         roof       multiple roof forms

·         gable     gable ornament

·         cladding               brick

·         walls      stickwork dividing walls into panels

·         windows              symmetrical fenestration, 1/1 double hung windows

·         decoration          turned posts and brackets, Italianate detailing

Bay-Front Rowhouse

THE BAY-FRONT ROWHOUSE WAS ONE OF THE LAST editions of this universal city house. Later nineteenth-century and early twentieth-century builders looked for ways to address the narrow facade. Most frequently they extended the house by means of a porch replacing the traditional stoop, and compressed the upper level with a three-sided oriel window. There were other variations in the window treatment on the second floor, but most motifs involved replacing the sash windows with an alternative form…

Source: Gottfried & Jennings

·         roof       flat roof

·         cladding               brick, sometimes stone

·         walls      parapet or wide cornice

·         windows              bay window that sits on shed porch roof, single cottage window on 1st floor, sometimes art glass header in cottage window

·         porch    porch with columns and pedestals, and open rail

Box house (4 and 6 units)

Source: McAlester

Bungalow

THE BUNGALOW IS A UNIQUE HOUSE TYPE THAT borrowed house forms from other cultures and invested in American sensibility and American materials to produce an original and intelligent design. As built from 1895 to 1915—its first development period—the bungalow was known as the California bungalow. Because of the nature of the design and the kind of living which that design suggested, it was appropriate for this form to develop on the west coast. The bungalow plan, which reduces the distinction between outside and inside space, reflects the open, practical, outdoor living possible in California. During the first part of the twentieth century, Americans became more interested in casual living, in built-in storage, in compact arrangements with plenty of air and light, and in open plan and less complicated furnishings. The bungalow responded to those needs…

Source: Gottfried & Jennings

·         roof       gently pitched, broad gables, lower gable covers porch, large gable covers house, exposed rafters or purlins, wide projecting eaves, heavy bargeboard supported by brackets

·         cladding               clapboard

·         walls      flared, water table

·         porch    enclosed, screened, or extended by terrace, often pergola over terrace

·         columns               tapered posts on pedestals

Bungalow Cottage

IN THE HISTORY OF THE AMERICAN HOUSE FORM, the termcottage” covered most of what was built in the nineteenth century, and the termbungalow”—sometimes wrongly applied—covered a good deal of what was built in the first half of the twentieth. It is not surprising that, in time, builders and designers also generated a building that combined attributes of both. While present-day critics refer to these as “bungaloid” forms, the period term bungalow cottage seems more appropriate…

Source: Gottfried & Jennings

·         roof       broad gable, ridgeline parallel to street, roof covers porch

·         dormer shed or wide gable

·         cladding               combination of materials, varies between 1st and 2nd floors

·         walls      brackets, exposed rafters, foundation material distinctive, two-tone effect from 1st to 2nd floor

·         chimney               end-wall common

·         windows              bay on elevation

·         door      panel and glass, Craftsman

·         porch    variety of bungalow treatments

Camelback House

This version of the shotgun cottage, a single story structure one room wide and two or more rooms deep, has a two-story enlargement at the rear: either (a) a second story added above the back two rooms, preserving the strict linearity of the house, or (b) a separate two—story section perpendicular to the front of the structure. Chimney placement varies. This peculiar form is a response to property tax laws in New Orleans; Louisville, Kentucky; and other cities which assessed houses according to the size of front facades.

Source: Jakle

Also see: Newton 1971, 16; Vlach 1976, 51; Noble 1984, 98.

 

Cape Cod Cottage

THE CAPE COD HOUSE HAS BEEN RECOGNIZED AS a unique vernacular type for almost 200 years but was not adopted by the industrial vernacular tradition until the 1920s, and even then it was referred to as a colonial cottage. Following Massachusetts custom, the early commercial Cape Cod was a compact house clad with shingles, featuring a small portico or pedimented entrance and a large interior central or end-wall chimney. Many models had a low gable on the facade, twin gable dormers, or a cutaway porch. The Cape Cod was produced and distributed in packages of integrated architectural elements. A major component of large subdivisions, the Cape Cod was often streamlined and abstracted until only the basic form, with narrower gables, remained. The cladding became clapboard or brick, as well as natural or man-made shingles. The chimney disappeared, and the entrance developed a projecting vestibule. The house was still sold as charming and cozy, but market forces made it a starter home.

Source: Gottfried & Jennings

·         roof       wide gable roof

·         dormer gable dormers on façade, sometimes shed dormer on back

·         cladding               wide clapboard or shingles

·         walls      sometimes shutters

·         chimney               large chimney

·         windows              symmetrical fenestration, 6/6 or 6/1 window pattern

·         entrance              colonial motifs on entrance

·         porch    projecting vestibule or stoop

Cape Cod Cottage (Double-House Cape Cod Cottage)

This structure, common in late eighteenth- and early nineteenth-century New England, is derived from the hall and parlor cottage. This compact dwelling usually contains two rooms in front with three smaller rooms across the rear. A half-story is reached by a staircase set between central chimney columns (a). Twentieth-century revival versions (commercial builders’ Cape Cod cottages) retain the traditional exterior form, although interior floor plans are much changed (b). Roofs on revival cottages are frequently interrupted by attic dormers.

Source: Jakle

Also see: For traditional Cape Cod cottages, see Connally 1960, 51; Cummings 1979, 23; Hubka 1979, 220; Rifkind 1980, 14. For twentieth-century revival versions, see Stith and Meyer 1974, 4; Walker 1981, 88; McAlester and McAlester 1984, 78; Noble 1984, 23.

 

Carolina I House

This structure is a common variation of the basic I house, a two-story structure that is one room deep and two rooms wide with a central hallway. This version has an attached single-story shed-style porch across the front and a matching single-story shed-like extension across the rear. It is common to the Carolinas but is not restricted to that region.

Source: Jakle

Also see: Kniffen 1965, 554; Newton 1971, 11; Swaim 1978, 38; McAlester and McAlester 1984, 80.

 

Center-Gable Cottage

THE CENTER-GABLE COTTAGE HAS A LONG HISTORY of development that seems to emerge from the application of gables to Gothic revival houses. During the period 1870-1940, the gable itself, while always aligned over the entrance door, lost its narrow, steeply pitched gable roof and widened to function more properly as a dormer. This house, built during the period 1870-90, was rectangular in shape, with the Wide side toward the street, and has a central hall plan with four rooms to each floor. The center gable was a frame house with clapboard siding, although shingles were later used in gable ends. The fenestration was symmetrically arranged in three bays. The house had a porch that was shallow in the older models and shallow but wide in the later ones. The porch carried its own roof supported by square posts

Source: Gottfried & Jennings

·         plan       3-5 bays

·         roof       gable

·         roof       gable, ridgeline parallel to street, dormer dominates roof, often returns or pent

·         dormer 1 large center gable dormer, window treatment in dormer

·         cladding               clapboard

·         walls      cornerboards, façade has a temple front

·         chimney               interior brick

·         windows              symmetrical fenestration, double-hung sash, variable pattern, sometimes oriel

·         porch    wide entrance porch

Center-Gable Cottage

Source: Gottfried & Jennings

·         plan       3-5 bays

·         roof       gable

·         roof       gable, ridgeline parallel to street, dormer dominates roof, often returns or pent

·         dormer 1 large center gable dormer, window treatment in dormer

·         cladding               clapboard

·         walls      cornerboards, façade has a temple front

·         chimney               interior brick

·         windows              symmetrical fenestration, double-hung sash, variable pattern, sometimes oriel

·         porch    wide entrance porch

Colonial Cottage

FROM 1870 TO 1940 SEVERAL COLONIAL REVIVAL houses developed; this section deals with two of them. The fervor for American culture that swept the country after the 1876 Centennial resulted in the revival of two house types, the New England eighteenth-century cottage of English medieval origins, and the Georgian. Well into the twentieth century the vernacular tradition included these in its inventory, as well as the Dutch gambrel, the so-called Cape Cod, and the large hipped and pedimented cottages with colonial motifs, which are all discussed in other sections…

Source: Gottfried & Jennings

·         roof       gable, ridgeline parallel to street

·         dormer sometimes gable dormers

·         cladding               clapboard, brick, shingles

·         walls      nonfunctioning shutters, sometimes historical details – lunette, dentils, 2nd-floor overhang, pendants

·         chimney               end wall

·         windows              symmetrical fenestration, double-hung sash, 6/1 major pattern

·         entrance              portico or flush door entrance with pediment or hood, panel door, or panel with lights door, sometimes sidelights

·         porch    end-wall porch, or sunroom

Colonial Gambrel

The colonial gambrel cottage is a subtype of the generic model. Throughout most of its history, which includes authentic eighteenth-century examples as well as several revival-style types, the house has been thought of as Dutch in origin and spirit. The revival style presented on these pages was popular during 1900—1940 and was referred to as Dutch colonial. The shape of the building was strongly dictated by the shape of the roof, which in the Dutch-Flemish tradition frequently had flared eaves. In many models the flare was wide enough to provide some shelter over the entrance. The roof ridge ran parallel to the street, so that the facade was available for a full design treatment. A three-bay front was common, but five-bay units can be found. The second-floor level was outlined by either a long shed dormer that covered most of the roof, or by two or three evenly spaced gable dormers. The dormers were repeated on the rear elevation. The entrance was understated, with only a hood or a pediment to mark the door and the shallow porch. Some pediments evolved into porticoes with slender columns. Fenestration was for the most part symmetrical on all elevations…

Source: Gottfried & Jennings

·         roof       gambrel, ridgeline parallel to street

·         dormer shed across entire façade, sometimes gambrel or gable dormers

·         cladding               wide clapboard, sometimes brick veneer on 1st floor façade

·         walls      often shutters, sometimes stone foundation

·         chimney               1 or 2 end-wall, brick or stone

·         windows              many double-hung sash, multipaned lights as 6/1, 6/6, 9/1, quarter-circle lunettes in gable end, often paired or triple on 1st-floor façade

·         door      panel door

·         entrance              small entrance porch, hood, roof, overhanging or portico, sometimes sidelights or fanlights, sometimes benches

·         porch    end-wall porch or sunroom, Tuscan columns

Colonial Hipped Cottage

Colonial-style hipped cottages appeared before the end of the nineteenth century, but were especially popular during the first few decades of the twentieth. The overall shape and plan were closely related to the generic cottage. There is historical continuity in the use of a square plan and the cubical shape, but the real essence of this colonial revival lay in the application of colonial motifs to the basic form. The entire design became formal and, for the most part, restrained. The roof took on a flat with a balustrade, while chimney caps were vaguely colonial or Queen Anne. The roof carried a central hipped dormer. The façade received slightly different treatments on each level, the first floor being a wide, plain wall pierced by large cottage windows, by a paneled door with molding plants derived from historic patterns, and occasionally by sidelights. The porch was distinctly classical: the porch posts were columns, and most often the porch treatment included an order of architecture complete with a short pediment over the porch steps. The second-floor windows did not align with the first. Windows were indented toward the center, which often displayed an oval window on the center line. In a few cases, a second-floor door replaced the oval window for access to a balcony

Source: Gottfried & Jennings

·         roof       hipped, often with flat and balustrade

·         dormer hipped or gable on façade, sometimes a Palladian window

·         cladding               clapboard, sometimes shingle

·         walls      sometimes giant pilasters, quoins, curvilinear bays, shutters, porch lattice, dentils

·         chimney               interior brick with ornate cap

·         windows              symmetrical fenestration, double-hung multipaned upper sash, one light lower sash, Palladian or oval accent

·         porch    formal with order of architecture, sometimes balcony, 1- or 2-story portico

·         columns               Ionic or Tuscan

Composite Bungalow with Irregular Massing

An elaboration of either the cottage bungalow or the shotgun bungalow, this 1- or 1 1/2-story structure displays geometric complexity with a highly irregular perimeter outline. Floor plans display considerable variation, although, as in other bungalows, rooms generally connect without use of large hallways, and the front door commonly opens directly into the living room. Broad eaves and a low pitch characterize roofs that are most frequently multiple-hip or multiple-gable. These structures first appeared at the very end of the nineteenth century as part of the bungalow fashion popularized by commercial builders.

Source: Jakle

Composite Cottage with Irregular Massing

This 1- or 1 1/2-story structure is geometrically complex and has a highly irregular perimeter outline. Multiple-gable, multiple-hip, or combined multiple-gable and hip roofs predominate. Floors plans display extreme variation. Bays, pavilions, dormers, and multiple porches and chimneys make the larger cottages eclectic architectural displays. Composite cottages were popular between 1890 and 1910.

Source: Jakle

Composite Cottage with Irregular Massing and Pyramid Roof (Southern Pyramid)

This 1- or 1 1/2-story structure features a steeply pitched pyramidal roof (sometimes truncated at the very top), making it an important variation of the composite cottage with irregular massing. The form originated in the South and appears to have been an elaboration of the pyramidal cottage. It was popular between 1890 and 1910.

Source: Jakle

Also see: Lewis 1975, 21.

 

Composite House with Irregular Massing

This 2- or 2 1/2-story structure is a composite of geometric forms with a highly irregular outline. Multiple-gable, multiple-hip, or combined multiple—gable and hip roofs predominate. Floor plans vary substantially. Towers, bays, pavilions, dormers, and multiple porches and chimneys may produce eclectic architectural displays. Late nineteenth-century houses tend to have open floor plans with hallways and principal rooms separated only by wide arches with sliding doors. Early twentieth-century houses are much reduced in scale.

Source: Jakle

Also see: For late nineteenth-century houses, see Peat 1962, 91; Handlin 1979, 353; Rifkind 1980, 56, 69, 82; Wright 1980, 26; Walker 1981, 149, 153, 163. For early twentieth-century houses, -see McAlester and McAlester 1984, 262.

 

Composite Ranch “House”

An elaboration of the ranchhouse,” this 1- or 11/2—story structure is geometrically complex and has an irregular outline. L, T, and lateral protuberances are most common requiring use of multiple-gable, multiple-hip, or combined multiple—gable and hip roofs. Floor plans vary considerably. First introduced immediately prior to World War II, its popularity continues today.

Source: Jakle

Also see: Walker 1981, 234, 252.

 

Continental Plan Cottage (or Cabin)

This 1- or 1 1/2-story dwelling is divided into three rooms. A kitchen extends through the full depth of the dwelling along one side. A front room (or parlor) and a rear bedroom occupy the other side. The fireplace and chimney column are located on the interior wall of the kitchen (with a five-plate stove in older structures sometimes built into the rear of the fireplace to warm the parlor beyond). The continental plan, introduced by Germans into Pennsylvania in the eighteenth century, was modified in the nineteenth century to embrace English building ideas and thus appears in many variations.

Source: Jakle

Also see: Glassie 1968a, 48; Pillsbury and Kardos c. 1970, 49; Rifkind 1980, 12; Walker 1981, 72; McAlester and

McAlester 1984, 83; Noble 1984, 43.

 

Continental Plan House (including the Penn Plan House or Quaker Plan House)

The continental plan, with its three-room first-floor arrangement, was used in 2- or 21/2-story structures in the eighteenth century, especially in Pennsylvania (a). Quaker migrants to the Carolinas introduced a variant of the house there (b). Continental plan houses are very similar in exterior appearance to two-thirds double-pile houses. Only the off-center placement of the chimneys and front doors suggests German or German-Swiss origins. Internal gable-end chimneys are common in nineteenth-century houses which, on the exterior, embrace English building ideas (c).

Source: Jakle

Also see: Bucher 1962, 14; Glassie 1968a, 54; Glassie 1972, 41; Swaim 1978, 34; Herman 1978, 162; Foley 1980, 63; Patrick 1981, 62; Walker 1981, 73, 77; Noble 1984, 45.

 

Cottage Bungalow

This 1- or 1 1/2-story structure (usually with a gable roof) is similar to the incised-porch bungalow except that the porch is added-on and not built-in. Eaves of the low- to moderately-pitched roof are extended outward on all sides. Dormers, front and back, are common, providing additional space in the half-story. Floor plans vary as do chimney arrangements. Generally, rooms have access to one another without the use of large hallways: the front door commonly opening into the living room. Bungalows, promoted by commercial builders, reached their height of popularity just prior to World War I.

Source: Jakle

Also see: Finley and Scott 1940, 414; Lancaster 1958, 239; Mattson 1981, 75.

Crossplan Cottage

The floor plan perimeter is cross-shaped in this irregularly massed 1 or 1 1/2 story structure with multiple-gable roof. The longer axis is usually perpendicular to the street, and the shorter cross-axis parallel. Floor plans and chimney placements vary in what is a late nineteenth, and early twentieth-century form. Shed-like front and/or side porches are common (a). The shorter cross-axis is not always fully developed (b). These structures, often built on speculation by builders, were most popular just prior to World War I.

Source: Jakle

 

Crossplan Cottage with Multiple Gambrel Roof

This crossplan cottage, popular in the first decade of the twentieth century, has a multiple-gambrel rather than a multiple-gable roof. The roof, by its size and unusual configuration, clearly dominates the structure. Shed roof porches are common.

Source: Jakle

Crossplan House

The floor-plan perimeter is cross-shaped in this irregularly massed, 2- or 21/2-story structure with multiple-gable roof. The longer axis is usually perpendicular to the street, the shorter crossaxis parallel. Floor plans and chimney placements vary in what is a late nineteenth- and early twentieth-century builder form. L-shaped shed—like front and side porches are common. The crossaxis is not always fully developed.

Source: Jakle

Crossplan House with Multiple Gambrel Roof

This early twentieth-century crossplan form has a multiple-gambrel rather than a multiple-gable roof. The roof, by its size and atypical configuration, clearly dominates the structure giving it a sense of vertical exaggeration. Shed-roof porches are typical.

Source: Jakle

Cube House (Cubic House, Two-Story Square House, Cornbelt Cube House, or Four-Square House)

This structure is a square or nearly square box with peaked-hip roof (sometimes truncated at the very top). Being two rooms wide and two rooms deep, it is essentially a 2- or 2 1/2—story version of the pyramidal cottage. However, most cube houses provide substantially greater floor space than pyramid cottages. This form type was popular throughout the first three decades of the twentieth century.

Source: Jakle

Also see: Finley and Scott 1940, 415; Kniffen 1965, 577; Rickert 1967, 229; Stith and Meyer 1974, 5; Walker 1981, 138; Noble 1984, 125.

 

Dogtrot Cabin or Cottage (Open Passage Cottage)

A widely used method of building a two-room 1- or 11/2—story log dwelling in the early nineteenth century was to separate two log pens (each approximately sixteen feet square) by an open central hall (usually half the width of a pen). The whole was covered by a common gable roof (a). In the mid- and late nineteenth century, the plan was widely replicated in frame construction, with shed-like porches both front and back and an L-extension (b).

Source: Jakle

Also see: Kniffen 1936, 187; Morrison 1952, 169; Glassie 1968a, 94; Newton 1971, 8; Ieane and Purcell 1978, 8, 16; Marshall 1981, 41; McAlester and McAlester 1984, 83; Noble 1984, 117.

Dogtrot House

The dogtrot plan was occasionally used in two-story houses in the nineteenth century, although rear L-extensions were usually only one story. This resulted in separate gable roofs for the main structure and addition. The open passage was frequently enclosed at a later date.

Source: Jakle

 

Double Shotgun Cottage (Double Bungalow)

This one-story structure, built primarily between 1890 and 1910, is comprised of two single shotgun plans built side by side under a common front-gable or hip roof. Front shed-roof porches are a typical feature, but chimney placement varies.

Source: Jakle

Also see: Lewis 1976, 59; Vlach 1976, 49.

 

Double Shotgun House

This two—story structure, built primarily between 1890 and 1910, is comprised of two shotgun plans built side by side under a single front-gable or hip roof.

Source: Jakle

 

Double-Pile Central Chimney House (including the New England Large House)

A house with a salt—box floor plan (with lobby entrance facing a central chimney and smaller rooms in back), this structure has a symmetrical gable roof when viewed in side profile. Thus it has a full second story across the rear rather than a lean—to extension.

Source: Jakle

Also see: Kelly 1924, 14; Morrison 1952, 474; Williams and Williams 1957, 67; Pillsbury and Kardos c. 1970, 25; Hubka 1979, 220; Walker 1981, 78; Noble 1984, 26.

Double-Pile Cottage (including the Georgian Plan Cottage)

A double—pile, 1- or 1 1/2-story dwelling with gable roof, most eighteenth- and early nineteenth-century versions have two rooms paired on either side of a central hallway (a). Chimney placement varies, with paired interior chimneys common. A flat hipped roof version of this cottage was also popular. Twentieth-century structures only approximate traditional prototypes. The central hallway is reduced or eliminated, the front door frequently opening into the living room (b).

Source: Jakle

Also see: For eighteenth- and early nineteenth-century versions, see Swaim 1978, 40; Ieane and Purcell 1978, 53, 70. For twentieth-century structures, see Walker 1981, 113; McAlester and McAlester 1984, 98.

Double-Pile Cottage with Cottage with Gambrel Roof

A double-pile, 1- or 1 1/2-story cottage with gambrel roof, most eighteenth- and nineteenth-century examples have paired rooms on either side of a central hallway. Twentieth-century structures only approximate this floor plan. In “Dutch Colonial” 1 1/2-story cottages, gambrel roofs are usually dominated by large dormers which create a two story effect.

Source: Jakle

Also see: For eighteenth- and nineteenth-century examples, see Morrison 1952, 128; Rifkind 1980, 13. For twentieth-century structures, see Embury 1913, 1; Stump 1981, 44; Walker 1981, 59; McAlester and McAlester 1984, 322.

 

 

Double-Pile Cottage with Front Extension

A double-pile structure of 1 or 1 1/2 stories, its roof form is a function of the size of the front extension placed to one side on the facade. Large extensions invite use of multiple-gable roofs as opposed to gables with dormers. A twentieth-century form, it derives from the traditional Double-pile Cottage.

Source: Jakle

Also see: Walker 1981, 91.

Double-Pile House (including the Georgian Plan or Four-Over-Four House)

A double-pile, 2- or 2 1/2—story structure with gable roof, most eighteenth- and nineteenth-century versions have paired rooms on either side of a central hallway on both floors (a). Chimney placement varies with paired gable-end chimneys typical, but flat-hipped roofs with paired interior chimneys are common also. Twentieth—century houses (Builders’ Colonial Houses) only approximate this traditional prototype. Central hallways are reduced or eliminated with the front door often opening directly into the living room which commonly occupies the full depth of the house on one side (b).

Source: Jakle

Also see: For eighteenth- and nineteenth-century versions, see Glassie 1968a, 49; Pillsbury and Kardos c. 1970, 56; Glassie 1972, 37; Lewis 1975, 5; Noble 1975, 290; Rifkind 1980, 21. For twentieth-century houses, see Stith and Meyer 1974, 4; Foley 1980, 214; Walker 1981, 75, 96, 173; McAlester and McAlester 1984, 78; Noble 1984, 47, 103.

 

Double-Pile House with Gambrel Roof

Double-pile, 2- or 2 1/2-story structures with gambrel roofs, most eighteenth- and nineteenth-century examples have paired rooms on either side of a central hallway on both floors. Twentieth-century houses only approximate this floor plan.

Source: Jakle

 

End-to-End Double House

IN THE END-TO-END DOUBLE HOUSE, THE SHARED or party wall is not readily perceived. Most of these houses did not have identical floor plans, so that they were less democratic and more hierarchical than twin houses. This condition is evident in the handling of entrances; one has primary street frontage and the other faces a side street or another building

Source: Gottfried & Jennings

·         dormer dormers

·         gable     intersecting gable, gambrel, or low hip roof

·         cladding               brick or clapboard

·         windows              symmetrical fenestration

·         entrance              front and side entrances

·         porch    small entry porch on street side, porch on side

English Bungalow

DURING THE 1920s AND 1930s MANY BUILDERS turned to an alternative bungalow design, the English bungalow. The planes suggested by low gables were filled in, so solid walls were tied to the gables. The open gable gave Way to mass in receding planes. The result was a compact brick or stucco house with successive gables and different motifs on each gable wall. The English bungalow included from one to three gables, a terrace usually on the street side, and an end-wall fireplace chimney. Gables were steep but not broad; one raking cornice of the gable often descended far below the wall line, even to ground level. Some gables served as screens behind which the entrance door was set, parallel to the street and hidden from view. Other features included varied window placement and size, combinations of cladding, a combination of roof forms (a hip on one end and clipped gable on the other), decorative louvers in the gables, arches, ornamental brickwork, and shingled roofs. All this produced a cozy five- or six-room house whose facade could look different from that of its neighbors…

Source: Gottfried & Jennings

·         roof       steeply pitched intersecting gables, clipped gable or hipped roof, gable carried to ground, gable pierced with rectangle or arched opening

·         cladding               brick or stucco

·         windows              paired or triple windows

·         door      door not visible from street

English Cottage

The English Cottage underwent a revival in the first few decades of this century. This picturesque cottage featured asymmetrical massing of steeply pitched roofs, stucco walls with clean edges, unusual window patterns, tall chimneys, and English detailing—all calculated to produce a charming, moderately rustic design. On plan, rooms were often clustered around a hall, and room sizes and shapes differed so as to provide new spatial experiences and opportunities for built-in furniture, a window treatment, and perhaps access to a terrace or a porch. These different interior spaces often projected from the main body of the house. Specific detailing included brick trim around openings, the use of Tudor framing in gables, some changes in materials, clipped gables, and high-contrast coloration…

Source: Gottfried & Jennings

·         roof       combination of short or long steeply pitched gables

·         walls      sometimes half-timber framing

·         chimney               large chimney

·         windows              multi-paned sash or casement windows

·         entrance              arched entry or door set in small gable

Flat-Front Rowhouse

THE FLAT-FRONT ROWHOUSE IS THE OLDER OF THE two types in this section, predating the Civil War. After the war it was both an Italianate and a more generally classical house. Little attention was given to detail, and organization was kept simple—three bays on the ground level and two or three bays on the second level. The flat or gable roof carried back over the three rooms of each floor. Some houses had a kitchen or pantry space behind the last room, with its own shed roof

Source: Gottfried & Jennings

·         roof       flat roof or very low gable roof

·         dormer sometimes dormer on roof

·         gable

·         cladding               brick

·         walls      sometimes cornice detailing, corbeling

·         chimney

·         windows              flat or segmental lintels, 1/1 window pattern, sometimes single cottage window on ground level

Four-Family Bay-Front

THE FOUR-FAMILY HOUSE IS THE LARGEST MULTI-family or apartment building to be discussed in this section. The bay-front type of “flats” building was a two-story rectangular structure. It combined the twin house and the two-family house, in that each side was often a mirror image of the other, but the four-family had two families per floor, each family having four or five rooms, a kitchen, and a bath

Source: Gottfried & Jennings

·         roof       flat or intersecting gable roof

·         walls      lateral divisions of façade wall

·         windows              multiple window groups, 1/1 major window pattern

·         entrance              central entrance flanked by bays or pavilions

Four-Family Portico-Front

STYLISTICALLY, THE PORTICO-FRONT WAS THE most deliberately historical of the four-family types. The portico itself was the dominant feature, being invariably two stories in height and carrying an entablature. The orders of architecture were varied, including Doric, Tuscan, Ionic, and Corinthian. The large portico was attached to flat-front buildings or set between flanking bays or pavilions. Portico composition included four columns evenly spaced or paired, with a wide center space for the entrance; most columns sat on blocks on a shallow porch. The second-floor porch was usually railed and served as a balcony for second-floor residents. The entablature was full but usually eclectic, using moldings and ornament not true to the order. Plain architraves and friezes were popular, and the cornice line carried dentils and projected from the entablature. Some moldings and the entire cornice were often carried around the building. Some of these fronts placed a low pediment on center, in line with the entrance, as a gesture toward the full temple front. Entablatures without a pediment substituted a balustrade

Source: Gottfried & Jennings

·         roof       flat roof with wide cornice and parapet

·         cladding               brick

·         entrance              central entrance

·         porch    large two story projecting portico

·         columns               4 columns, varied orders

Four-Family Villa

THE VILLA STYLE OF BUILDING WAS THE LAST IN the hipped cottage line. It had a well-organized facade derived from the Italian and Spanish-style villa in single-family houses. The walls were greatly influenced by the symmetrical fenestration and the central entrance, which led to a long vestibule. The roof forms were either flat across the entire structure, or had a gable parallel to the street with corner pediments on the front section and a flat roof on the remainder. Floor plans in the villas were similar to the other types