kammara: Bedroom in the Swedish dwelling.

tvarumstuga: A three-room dwelling of Sweden, common in Mora, province of Dalecarlia.

Swedish gambrel roof: A gambrel roof where the two upper slopes are shallow.

mjolkbod: Dairy room of a Swedish dwelling.

vardastuga: The single-room log cabin of Sweden, a prototype of early Swedish buildings in America.

parstuga: Three-room dwelling of the Swedes, the long rectangular plan of which consisted of two stugas joined by a vestibule and a third chamber.

 

500
Kingdom of Svear created (first Swedish state)

516
Hygelac, King of the Geats, led attack on Frisia

550
Gotlanders came under Swedish protection

800
Svear conquered Gotar in southern Sweden; Birka founded on island of Bjorko

829
Christianity introduced by St. Ansgar

860
Swedish Vikings attacked Constantinople

Erik Segersäll (approx. 970 – 995)
Olof Skötkonung (approx. 995 – 1022)

1000
Svein Forkbeard, King of Denmark, and Olaf Eiriksson, King of Sweden, defeated King Olaf Tryggvason in naval Battle of Svolder; Birka destroyed; Swedes lost control of Hedeby

1022
Anund Jakob became king

Anund Jakob (approx. 1022 – 1050)

1026
Canute the Great attacked Swedes and Norwegians at Battle of Holy River; Canute victorious; controlled Scandinavia

1050
Edmund the Old became king of Sweden

Emund the Old (approx. 1050 – 1060)

1054
Sweden and Denmark set boundaries

Stenkil (approx. 1060 – 1066) Stenkil dynasty

1066
Halsten crowned king

1070
Halsten deposed; Hakon the Red became King

1150
Erik IX crowned King

1160
King Erik IX killed by Danish prince

Halsten (approx. 1067 – 1070)

Inge the Elder (approx. 1079 – 1083)
Blot-Sven (approx. 1083 – 1085)
Inge the Elder (approx. 1085 – 1110)
Filip och Inge the Younger – co-regent Kings (approx. 1110 – 1118)
Inge the Younger – sole Monarch (approx. 1118 – 1120)
Ragnvald knaphövde (middle of 1120’s)
Magnus Nilsson (approx. 1125 – 1130)
Sverker the Older (approx. 1130 – 1156) Sverker dynasty
Erik the Pious (approx. 1156 – 1160) Erik dynasty
Magnus Henriksson (approx. 1160 – 1161) Stenkil dynasty
Karl Sverkersson (approx. 1161 – 1167) Sverker dynasty
Knut Eriksson (approx. 1167 – 1195) Erik dynasty

1187
Estonian raiders sacked, burned Sigtuna

Sverker Karlsson (approx. 1195 – 1208) Sverker dynasty

1208
King Sverker overthrown at Battle of Lena

Erik Knutsson (approx. 1208 – 1216) Erik dynasty
Johan Sverkersson (approx. 1216 – 1222) Sverker dynasty

1220
Swedish fleet attacked Estonia

Erik Eriksson “the Lisp and Lame” (approx. 1222 – 1229, 1234 – 1250) Erik dynasty

1229
Folkungs deposed King Eriksson

Knut Långe (1229 – 1234) Erik dynasty

1233
King Eriksson returned to rule

Birger Jarl – Earl Marshal (1248 – 1266) Folkunga dynasty

1250
King Eriksson died; Valdemar crowned King; Birger Jarl declared regent until Valdemar became of age

Valdemar (1250 – 1275)

1251
Folkungs rose against rule of Jarl and Valdemar; lost at Herrevads Bridge

1266
King Valdemar overthrown by brothers

1275
King Valdemar deposed

Magnus Ladulås (1275 – 1290)
Birger Magnusson (1290 – 1318)

1292
Swedish expansion reached Karelian Isthmus

1318
Peasants revolted against King

Magnus Eriksson (1319 – 1364)

1323
Sweden and Russia established border

1332
Magnus Eriksson crowned King of Sweden and King of Norway

1350’s
Black Death killed one-third of population

Erik Magnusson (1356 – 1359)
Håkan Magnusson (1362 – 1364)
Albrekt the Younger of Mecklenburg (1364 – 1389)
Margareta (1389 – 1396)

Erik of Pommern (1396 – 1439)

1397
Union of Kalmar united Sweden, Denmark and Norway under one monarch

Kristoffer of Bayern (1441 – 1448)
Karl Knutsson (Bonde) (1448 – 1457, 1464 – 1465, 1467 – 1470)

1448
Karl Knutsson crowned King of Sweden and King of Norway

1450
Danish King Kristian I convinced Norway to renounce King Knutsson

1451
Danes attacked Sweden

Kristian I (1457 – 1464) Oldenburg dynasty

1465
King Knutsson forced to abdicate

1467
Knutsson again crowned King of Sweden

Sten Sture the Older – Viceroy (1470 – 1497, 1501 – 1503)

1495
Russians forces invaded Sweden

Hans (Johan II) (1497 – 1501) Oldenburg dynasty

1497
King Hans of Denmark and Norway attacked Sweden; King Hans declared King of Sweden

Svante Nilsson Sture – Viceroy (1504 – 1512)
Sten Sture the Younger – Viceroy (1512 – 1520)
Kristian II (1520 – 1521) Oldenburg dynasty
Gustav I Eriksson (Vasa, 1521 – 1523; Viceroi, 1523-1560; King)

1523
Gustav I (Gustav Vasa) crowned King; separated Swedish Crown from Kalmar Union

Erik XIV (1560 – 1568)
Johan III (1568 – 1592)

1568
King Eric XIV deposed; John III named King

1570
Peace of Stettin concluded; Denmark recognized independence of Sweden; Sweden gave up claim to Norway

Sigismund (1592 – 1599)
Karl IX (Viceroi, 1599 – 1604; King, 1604 – 1611)
Gustav II Adolf (1611 – 1632)

sateri roof: In Swedish architecture of the 17th and 18th century, a type of hipped roof with vertical breaks which were often provided with windows.

1617
Treaty of Stolbovo ended Swedish occupation of Northern Russia

1628
Swedish warship Vasa sank in Stockholm harbor; 25 drowned

1632
Swedish and Saxon army defeated Imperial forces; King Gustavus II died in battle

Kristina (1632 – 1654)

1637
Swedish immigrants sailed to Delaware

1651
Sweden seized territory of Estonia

1653
Stockholm became capital of Sweden

1654
Queen Christina abdicated throne; converted to Catholicism, later buried in Rome in St. Peters

Karl X Gustav (1654 – 1660) Pfalz dynasty
Karl XI (1660 – 1697)

1685
King Charles II barred Jews from settling in Stockholm

Karl XII (1697 – 1718)

1698
King Charles II invaded Denmark; forced Danish King to sign Peace of Travendal

1700 – 1721
Northern War occurred

Ulrika Eleonora (1719 – 1720)
Fredrik I (1720 – 1751) Hessen dynasty

1721
Peace of Nystad ended Northern War

1743
In Treaty of Abo, Sweden ceded southeast Finland to Russia

Adolf Fredrik (1751 – 1771) Holstein-Gottorpska ätten dynasty
Gustav III (1771 – 1792)

1790
Swedish army captured one-third of Russian fleet at Battle of Svensksund

Gustav IV Adolf (1792 – 1809)

1792
King Gustav III assassinated

Karl XIII (1809 – 1818)

1809
Sweden declared independence; constitutional monarchy established; Russia took Aland Island group from Sweden

1814
Denmark ceded Norway to Sweden

Karl XIV Johan (1818 – 1844) Bernadotte dynasty

1832
Gota Canal opened

Oskar I (1844 – 1859)

1852
Anti-Jewish riots broke out in Stockholm

Karl XV (1859 – 1872)

1866
Alfred Nobel invented dynamite

Oskar II (1872 – 1907)

1875
Denmark, Norway and Sweden adopted common basis of currency

1879
Labor strike by workers in timber industry occurred, several thousand refused to work

1897
World exposition held in Stockholm; first Swedish car built

1901
First Nobel Prize awarded

1905
Union of Norway and Sweden dissolved

Gustaf V (1907 – 1950)

1914
World War I began, Sweden neutral

1918
Sweden recognized Finland as independent state; Swedish naval expedition sent to Aland Islands to protect against Russians; Spanish flu epidemic killed 38,000 in Sweden

1920
Sweden joined League of Nations

1939
World War II began; Sweden neutral

1940
Sweden forced to allow German troops to cross through Sweden to Norway; Sweden became refuge for Danes and Norwegians

1941
Transit agreement with Germany cancelled

1946
Sweden joined United Nations

Gustaf VI Adolf (1950 – 1973)

1952
Sweden founding member of Nordic Council

1953
Swedish diplomat, Dag Hammarskjold, became secretary general of United Nations

1959
Sweden became founding member of European Free Trade Association (EFTA)

1971
Two-chamber parliament replaced by one chamber elected by representation

Carl XVI Gustaf (1973 – )

1975
Constitutional reforms enacted; powers of monarch removed, office became ceremonial only

1980’s
Soviet submarines suspected of invading Swedish territorial waters; relations with Soviet Union deteriorated

1986
Prime Minister Olof Palme assassinated

1990
Parliament supported governmental decision to apply for membership in European Union

1994
Voters narrowly approved EU membership

1995
Sweden joined EU

2000
Bridge and tunnel opened between Malmo, Sweden and Copenhagen, Denmark

2001
12,000 demonstrators in Goteborg set up flaming barricades to protest globalization

2003
Foreign Minister Anna Lindh assassinated in Stockholm; referendum vote rejected Euro; power outage in southern Sweden and Denmark left 4 million without electricity

 

Also see Architecture index.

 

Sources Cited

Sweden History Timeline, World Atlas