Russo-Byzantine architecture: The first phase of Russian architecture (11th to 16th century) derived from the Byzantine architecture of Greece; mainly stone churches characterized by cruciform plans and multiple bulbous domes.

khory: In early Russian architecture, a gallery.

kolokolnya: In Early Russian architecture, a bell tower.

lopatka: In early Russian architecture, a pilaster without a capital.

dynka: In early Russian architecture, an ornamental band around the shaft of a column or pillar.

porebrik: In early Russian architecture, a frieze constructed of bricks which are set at an angle of 45 degrees to the surface of a wall.

leshchad: A thin stone slab used in early Russian construction, as in flooring.

nalichnik: An encircling border or decorative frame around a window or door in early Russian architecture; often with columns and a pediment.

lunnitsa: In early Russian architecture, a semicircular pendant.

musiya: In early Russian architecture, a mosaic.

podzor: In early Russian architecture, a carved bargeboard. 2. A decorative band of ironwork on a masonry building.

okhlupen: In early Russian architecture, a ridge beam.

shchipets: In early Russian architecture, a gable.

zvonnitsa: In early Russian architecture, a bell gable.

bochka: In early Russian architecture, a wooden roof whose peak has the shape of a horizontal cylinder with the upper side surface extended into a pointed ridge.

kub: A type of roof structure on an early Russian wooden building which is square in plan; constructed of wood, it has four identical faces, with a profile similar to a squared-off onion dome. Also see kubovatoye pokrytiye.

lukovitsa: In early Russian architecture, an onion dome.

shater: In early Russian architecture, a roof which is steeply pyramidal in shape, having four or more sides.

shatrovoye pokrytiye: In early Russian architecture, a roof which is steeply pyramidal in shape, having four or more sides.

gulbishche: In early Russian architecture, a terrace which surrounds a building.

fonar: In early Russian architecture, a type of lantern consisting of a cupola having many small windows.

glukhaya glava: In early Russian architecture, a blind cupola.

makovitsa: In early Russian architecture, a small cupola. 2. In early Russian architecture, any type of crowning.

gont: A thin wood shingle, used for roofing in early Russian architecture.

parus: In early Russian architecture, a pendentive.

kiot: In early Russian architecture, a niche to house one or more icons.

pechura: In early Russian architecture, a niche in a masonry wall.

shirinka: An ornamental insert in early Russian architecture; a framed rectangular or square recess in a masonry wall; may have an ornamental stone or brick at its center.

sandrik: In early Russian architecture, a door or window pediment.

okonchina: In early Russian architecture, a framework of grooved bars for holding glass in a window.

glukhie shatry: In early Russian architecture, any blind building element, as a blind window.

kokoshniki: In early Russian architecture, a series of corbeled arches (usually one of two or three tiers, one above the other); especially used around the drum supporting a cupola. 2. Any similar decorative feature.

baraban: In early Russian architecture, same as drum or a cylindrical or polygonal wall below a dome, often pierced with windows.

sheiya: In early Russian architecture, a drum having no windows, which supports a dome.

kamera: An interior subdivision of a Russian prison.

krest: In Russian architecture, a cross.

kurgan: A tumulus or burial mound in the southern part of Russia and Siberia.

rhodonite: A silicate of manganese of a pink or red color, frequently streaked and spotted. Hard and tough, and with a close textures. Little used in America, but a favorite material with the Russians. Found in commercial quantities only in the Urals.

begunets: In Russian medieval churches, string-course or frieze of bricks laid on ends at angles, stretcher-sides flush with the wall behind, and touching at the tops to form a series of indented triangular recesses. Often associated with brick cogging (called porebrik), it was sometimes made of masonry, forming repeated carved depressions.

kubovatoye pokrytiye: Also see kubovatoye pokrytiye.

onion dome: A bulbuous, domelike roof terminating in a sharp point, used especially in Russian Orthodox church architecture to cover a cupola or tower.

izba: A Russian log cabin, log house, or hut.

Princes and grand princes of Moscow (Muscovy): Danilovich dynasty*
Daniel (son of Alexander Nevsky) c. 1276-1303
Yury 1303-25
Ivan I 1325-40
Semyon (Simeon) 1340-53
Ivan II 1353-59
Dmitry (II) Donskoy 1359-89
Vasily I 1389-1425
Vasily II 1425-62

1448
Independence of Russian Orthodox Church from the Church of Constantinople.

prestol: In the Russian Orthodox church, an altar or sanctuary table.

chasovnya: In early Russian architecture, a chapel which is a detached structure.

krestokupolnyi: A Russian Orthodox church having a dome over the crossing.

kliros: The choir platform in a Russian Orthodox church.

pritvor: The narthex of a Russian Orthodox church.

obraznaya: The room in which icons are kept in a Russian Orthodox church.

papert: The parvis of a Russian Orthodox church.

dyakonik: The sacristy in a Russian Orthodox church.

riznitsa: A sacristy in a Russian Orthodox church.

analoi: A pulpit or lectern in the Russian Orthodox church.

trapeznaya: A refectory in the monastery of a Russian Orthodox church.

tsarskiy vrata: In the iconostasis of a Russian Orthodox church, the middle of three pairs of doors which lead to the main altar.

Ivan III 1462-1505
Vasily III 1505-33
Ivan IV 1533-47

Tsars of Russia: Danilovich dynasty
Ivan IV 1547-84
Fyodor I 1584-98

Tsars of Russia: Time of Troubles
Boris Godunov 1598-1605
Fyodor II 1605
False Dmitry 1605-06
Vasily (IV) Shuysky 1606-10

Interregnum 1610-12

Tsars and empresses of Russia and the Russian Empire: Romanov dynasty**
Michael 1613-45
Alexis 1645-76
Fyodor III 1676-82
Peter I (Ivan V co-ruler 1682-96) 1682-1725
Catherine I 1725-27
Peter II 1727-30
Anna 1730-40
Ivan VI 1740-41
Elizabeth 1741-61 (O.S.)
Peter III*** 1761-62 (O.S.)
Catherine II 1762-96
Paul 1796-1801
Alexander I 1801-25
Nicholas I 1825-55
Alexander II 1855-81
Alexander III 1881-94
Nicholas II 1894-1917

Suprematism: Russian artistic movement founded (1915) by Kasimir Malevich (1878-1935), who produced paintings limited to basic geometric shapes using a sparse range of color. His White Square on a White Ground (1918) was regarded as the movement’s paradigm, and influenced the International-Modern Movement and De Stijl, though was largely passé by 1919.

 

Provisional Government 1917

Chairmen (or first secretaries) of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union
Vladimir Ilich Lenin 1917-24

Constructivism: A movement which originated in Moscow after 1917, primarily in sculpture, but with broad application to architecture. The expression of construction was to be the basis for all building design, with emphasis on functional machine parts. Vladimir Tatlin’s project of a monument to the Third International in Moscow (1920) is the most famous example.

Joseph Stalin 1924-53
Georgy Malenkov 1953
Nikita Khrushchev 1953-64
Leonid Brezhnev 1964-82
Yury Andropov 1982-84
Konstantin Chernenko 1984-85
Mikhail Gorbachev 1985-91

President of Russia
Boris Yeltsin 1991-99
Vladimir Putin 1999-2008
Dmitry Medvedev 2008-12
Vladimir Putin 2012-

 

Also see Architecture index.

 

Sources Cited

Leaders of Muscovy…, Encyclopaedia Brittanica