Architecture / Empire / Roman

Rome is founded (753 BCE)

Rome overthrows Etruscan conquerors, becomes a Republic (509 BCE)

Punic Wars (264 BCE – 146 BCE)

Hannibal invades Italy (218 BCE)

Publius Sulpicius Galba Maximus  (203 BCE)

Gaius Servilius Geminus, dictator (202 BCE)

Lucius Cornelius Sulla, dictator (82 BCE – 81 BCE)

Julius Caesar, dictator of Rome, assassinated (49 BCE – 44 BCE)


Roman Emperor

Augustus (27 BCE–14 CE)

augustaeum: A building, or a temple, dedicated to the deified Augustus, as that at Ancyra in Asia Minor.

Augusteum: A building or temple dedicated to the deified Augustus.

pax romana: The Roman Peace. The contrast between the distracted and devastated condition of the ancient world and the peace brought to it at the beginning of the reign of Augustus led to identifying peace and prosperity with Rome

milliarium aureum: A golden column erected by Augustus in 29 B.C. at the point where the principal roads of the Roman empire terminated.

Vitruvian: Of or pertaining to Marcus Vitruvius Pollio, a Roman architect of the first century B.C., the author of an important treatise which preserves much that is valuable in regard to Greek and Roman art, and is our principal authority for facts and practice in the building arts of the classic period. The termVitruvian” is used to distinguish principles and practices of the architecture of ancient Rome as revealed to us by this author.

Attic base: The standard Vitruvian base to a classical column.

running dog: Also see Vitruvian scroll.

wave molding: A molding that represent a series of breaking waves (i.e., one that incorporates a Vitruvian scroll).

wave scroll: See Vitruvian scroll.

wave-scroll: Classical ornament consisting of a series of repeated scrolls or waves, sometimes like the side-view of a series of overlapping consoles or long S-shapes on their sides, also called running-dog or Vitruvian scroll.

water: Classical ornament such as the Vitruvian scroll may represent waves, while the Ancient-Egyptians used parallel zig-zag lines to suggest water. Sculpted representations of flowing water are associated with grottoes, nymphaea, etc., and are found in rustication, often frozen, or congelated…

undulating: Curvilinear or Flowing tracery. 2. Undulate band molding, guilloche, oundy, undé, undy, wave-scroll or Vitruvian scroll.

Tivoli window: Type of window-opening based on a Roman example in the Temple of Vesta, Tivoli, published by Palladio. Less wide at the top than at the bottom (i.e. with sloping sides), it has an architrave with crossettes crowed with a cornice, and is sometimes called a Vitruvian opening.

Tiberius (14–37 CE)
Caligula (37–41 CE)
Claudius (41–54 CE)
Nero (54–68 CE)

Golden House: Domus Aurea built by Emperor Nero to designs by Severus and Celer on the Esquiline Hill, Rome. A large palace with landscaped gardens, it was remarkable for its complex plan with rooms of different geometrical shapes, may vaulted and sumptuously decorated.

Galba (68–69 CE)
Otho (January–April 69 CE)
Aulus Vitellius (July–December 69 CE)
Vespasian (69–79 CE)
Titus (79–81 CE)
Domitian (81–96 CE)
Nerva (96–98 CE)

Trajan bust from the Uffizi

Trajan (98–117 CE)

sarcophagi: A stone coffin. The term having been originally a Latin adjective, “flesh devouring,” and applied to a certain stone from Asia Minor. It was applied substantively in later Latin to any tomb or coffin. The use of sarcophagi was common in Egypt from the time of the builder of the great pyramid. Greeks and Romans seem not to have used them often before the time of Trajan…

symbolical column: A column used to support a representative figure or emblem, as the columns of S. Mark in Venice and other cities of the ancient Venetian dominion; or to commemorate an event or person, as a rostral column, the column of Trajan, the column in the Place Vendome in Paris, etc.

pamper: Representation of vine-stems with grapes, often found draped in spirals around columns, suggesting the twisted Trajanic or Solomonic form. 2. Grapes, leaves, and vine-stems as running undercut ornament in cavettos and other continuous hollows at the tops of Perp. screens called trail.

triumphal column: A decorated column to celebrate a military victory, e.g. Trajan’s Column, Rome (AD 113).

Hadrian bust from the Uffizzi.

Hadrian (117–138 CE)

Athenaeum: A temple or place dedicated to Athene, or Minerva; specifically an institution founded at Rome by Hadrian for the promotion of literary and scientific studies, and imitated in the provinces.

Antoninus Pius (138–161 CE)
Marcus Aurelius (161–180 CE)
Lucius Verus (161–169 CE)
Commodus (177–192 CE)
Publius Helvius Pertinax (January–March 193 CE)
Marcus Didius Severus Julianus (March–June 193 CE)
Septimius Severus (193–211 CE)
Caracalla (198–217 CE)
Publius Septimius Geta (209–211 CE)
Macrinus (217–218 CE)
Elagabalus (218–222 CE)
Severus Alexander (222–235 CE)
Maximinus (235–238 CE)
Gordian I (March–April 238 CE)
Gordian II (March–April 238 CE)
Pupienus Maximus (April 22–July 29, 238 CE)
Balbinus (April 22–July 29, 238 CE)
Gordian III (238–244 CE)
Philip (244–249 CE)
Decius (249–251 CE)
Hostilian (251 CE)
Gallus (251–253 CE)
Aemilian (253 CE)
Valerian (253–260 CE)
Gallienus (253–268 CE)
Claudius II Gothicus (268–270 CE)
Quintillus (270 CE)
Aurelian (270–275 CE)
Tacitus (275–276 CE)
Florian (June–September 276 CE)
Probus (276–282 CE)
Carus (282–283 CE)
Numerian (283–284 CE)
Carinus (283–285 CE)
Diocletian (east, 284–305 CE; divided the empire into east and west)
Maximian (west, 286–305 CE)
Constantius I (west, 305–306 CE)
Galerius (east, 305–311 CE)
Severus (west, 306–307 CE)
Maxentius (west, 306–312 CE)
Constantine I (306–337 CE; reunified the empire)

labarum: Cross devised and used by Constantine.

Alexandrinum opus: The third division of the medieval mosaic art, from the time of Constantine to the 13th century.

Galerius Valerius Maximinus (310–313 CE)
Licinius (308–324 CE)
Constantine II (337–340 CE)
Constantius II (337–361 CE)
Constans I (337–350 CE)
Gallus Caesar (351–354 CE)
Julian (361–363 CE)
Jovian (363–364 CE)
Valentinian I (west, 364–375 CE)
Valens (east, 364–378 CE)
Gratian (west, 367–383 CE; coemperor with Valentinian I)
Valentinian II (375–392 CE; crowned as child)
Theodosius I (east, 379–392 CE; east and west, 392–395 CE)
Arcadius (east, 383–395 CE, coemperor; 395–402 CE, sole emperor)
Magnus Maximus (west, 383–388 CE)
Honorius (west, 393–395 CE, coemperor; 395–423 CE, sole emperor)
Theodosius II (east, 408–450 CE)
Constantius III (west, 421 CE, coemperor)
Valentinian III (west, 425–455 CE)
Marcian (east, 450–457 CE)
Petronius Maximus (west, March 17–May 31, 455 CE)
Avitus (west, 455–456 CE)
Majorian (west, 457–461 CE)
Libius Severus (west, 461–465 CE)
Anthemius (west, 467–472 CE)
Olybrius (west, April–November 472 CE)
Glycerius (west, 473–474 CE)
Julius Nepos (west, 474–475 CE)
Romulus Augustulus (west, 475–476 CE)
Leo I (east, 457–474 CE)
Leo II (east, 474 CE)
Zeno (east, 474–491 CE)

Foundation of Ostrogothic Kingdom in Italy (493)
Theodoric the Great, King of the Visigoths (493-526)
Teia (552-553)

Rome almost completely abandoned

Roman Empire dissolved (May 29, 1453)

Also see Architecture index.