Egyptian: Of or relating to Egypt from approximately 3000 B.C. to its conquest by Alexander the Great, 332 B.C.
Egyptian architecture: The architecture of Egypt from the 3rd millennium B.C. to the Roman period. Its most outstanding achievements are its massive funerary monuments and temples built of stone for permanence, featuring only post-and-lintel construction, corbel vaults without arches and vaulting, and pyramids.
pharaoh: Any of the rulers of ancient Egypt who were believed to be divine and had absolute power.
hypostyle hall: A large space with a flat roof supported by rows of columns. Prevalent in ancient Egyptian and Achaemenid architecture. 2. A structure whose roofing was supported, within the perimeter, by groups of columns or piers of more than one height; clerestory lights sometimes were introduced.
serdab: In ancient Egyptian architecture, a closed statue chamber. 2. In Mesopotamian town houses, a cellar under the courtyard, ventilated and lighted by skylights, serving as a living room during the summer months.
naos: Inner cell or sanctuary of a Greek temple, equivalent to the Roman cella, containing the deity’s statue. 2. Sanctuary of a centrally planned Byzantine church. 3. Small shrine, often portable, e.g. the battered-sided Egyptian type, carried by a Naöphorus figure.
zoological garden: Open-air enclosed area for keeping, displaying, studying, and breeding animals. The type is ancient, for animals were kept in gardens in Ancient Egypt, Mesopotamia, and China for purposes of providing game for hunting, food, and impressing visitors. Menageries to show off species discovered in explorations were developed from Renaissance times, but the animals were caged rather than allowed the freedom of open-air habitats, and in the 18th c. royal menageries were opened to the public… In the 20th c., with concerns about conservation and improved knowledge about animals’ welfare, natural habitats were created, so the modern zoo promotes horticulture to provide them.
tel: A mound; the modern Arabic term, which enters into many compound names of sites, as in Egypt and Mesopotamia. Also written tell.
cubit: A linear unit of measurement used by the ancients; in ancient Egypt, equal to 20.62 in. (52.4 cm). 2. An ancient Roman measure of length equal to 17.5 in. (44.4 cm). 3. An ancient Greek measure of length equal to 18.2 in. (46.2 cm).
sarcophagi: A stone coffin. The term having been originally a Latin adjective, “flesh devouring,” and applied to a certain stone from Asia Minor. It was applied substantively in later Latin to any tomb or coffin. The use of sarcophagi was common in Egypt from the time of the builder of the great pyramid. Greeks and Romans seem not to have used them often before the time of Trajan…
syene granite: Egyptian syenite; granito rosso. A coarse, red granite occurring at Syene, in Egypt and much used by the ancient Egyptians in the monoliths and temples. The various obelisks, like those in Paris and New York, are of this material.
Hathor-headed: Noting an ancient Egyptian column having as its capital the head of Hathor, the Egyptian goddess of love and happiness, often represented with the head or horns of a cow. Also, Hathoric.
Osiride: In ancient Egypt, a type of column in which a standing figure of Osiris is placed before a square pier; it differs from the classical caryatid in that the pier, and not the figure, supports the entablature.
Persic: Column with bell-shaped capital and similarly sized base, ornamented with lotus-like forms, derived from Achaemenian prototypes from Persepolis. It was fashionable in early-19th c. Egyptian-Revival schemes of decoration.
kheker: Ancient-Egyptian decorative frieze consisting of repetitive upright motifs resembling papyrus-stalks bundled together with the floral parts at the top, or the fringes of a carpet. 2. Cavetto gorge-cornice carved or painted with vertical leaf-shapes over a torus molding.
khekher: Ancient-Egyptian decorative frieze consisting of repetitive upright motifs resembling papyrus-stalks bundled together with the floral parts at the top, or the fringes of a carpet. 2. Cavetto gorge-cornice carved or painted with vertical leaf-shapes over a torus molding.
propyla: In ancient Egyptian architecture, a monumental gateway, usually between two towers in outline like truncated pyramids, of which one or a series stood before the actual entrance or pylon of most temples or other important buildings.
propylon: In ancient Egyptian architecture, a monumental gateway, usually between two towers in outline like truncated pyramids, of which one or a series stood before the actual entrance or pylon of most temples or other important buildings.
coilanaglyphic: An Egyptian form of relief is counter sunk, i.e. it does not project above the general surface upon which it is wrought. This is known as cavo relievo or intaglio relevato; also hollow relief or coelanaglyphic sculpture. The outlines are incised and the relief is thus contained in a sunk panel no bigger than itself.
uraeus: Representation of the sacred asp, cobra, or serpent, e.g. on the Nemes headdress of Ancient-Egyptian divinities and sovereigns, or on either side of winged discs or globes on the gorge-cornice of Egyptian architecture. See also ouroboros.
Sphinx: A fabulous creature, common in Egyptian sculpture. The androsphinx represented the body of a lion with the head of a man; the criosphinx, the body of a lion and the head of a ram; the hieracosphinx, the body of a lion and the head of a hawk.
water: Classical ornament such as the Vitruvian scroll may represent waves, while the Ancient-Egyptians used parallel zig-zag lines to suggest water. Sculpted representations of flowing water are associated with grottoes, nymphaea, etc., and are found in rustication, often frozen, or congelated…
hieroglyph: A figure representing (a) an idea, and intended to convey a meaning, (b) a word or root of a word, or (c) a sound which is part of a word; especially applied to the engraved marks and symbols found on the monuments of ancient Egypt.
Kufic: Characters employed in stonework and tile inscriptions in Islamic architecture. Kufic inscriptions were sometimes employed decoratively (and meaninglessly) in Hispano-Moresque architecture in much the same way as Egyptian hieroglphs were used before they could be read and understood by 19th and 19th c. designers. They were widely employed in 19th c. revivalist architecture of the Moorish or orientalizing type.
mud building: Building done with natural materials mixed with water, as distinguished from that monolithic work which is made with cement or other prepared material. Pise work and adobe are strictly mud building. This kind of work was done largely in ancient Egypt, and it is evident that many of the forms of the massive stone building of later times were derived directly from the older use of the skeleton frame of light reeds, and the like, covered with mud probably applied in many successive coats.
Old Kingdom ca. 2649–2150 B.C.
Dynasty 3 ca. 2649–2575 B.C.
Zanakht ca. 2649–2630 B.C.
Djoser ca. 2630–2611 B.C.
Sekhemkhet ca. 2611–2605 B.C.
Khaba ca. 2605–2599 B.C.
Huni ca. 2599–2575 B.C.
Dynasty 4 ca. 2575–2465 B.C.
Snefru ca. 2575–2551 B.C.
Khufu ca. 2551–2528 B.C.
Djedefre ca. 2528–2520 B.C.
Khafre (26.7.1392) ca. 2520–2494 B.C.
Nebka II ca. 2494–2490 B.C.
Menkaure (37.6.1) ca. 2490–2472 B.C.
Shepseskaf ca. 2472–2467 B.C.
Thamphthis ca. 2467–2465 B.C.
Dynasty 5 ca. 2465–2323 B.C.
Userkaf ca. 2465–2458 B.C.
Sahure (18.2.4) ca. 2458–2446 B.C.
Neferirkare ca. 2446–2438 B.C.
Shepseskare ca. 2438–2431 B.C.
Neferefre ca. 2431–2420 B.C.
Niuserre ca. 2420–2389 B.C.
Menkauhor ca. 2389–2381 B.C.
Isesi ca. 2381–2353 B.C.
Unis ca. 2353–2323 B.C.
Dynasty 6 ca. 2323–2150 B.C.
Teti ca. 2323–2291 B.C.
Userkare ca. 2291–2289 B.C.
Pepi I ca. 2289–2255 B.C.
Merenre I ca. 2255–2246 B.C.
Pepi II ca. 2246–2152 B.C.
Merenre II ca. 2152–2152 B.C.
Netjerkare Siptah ca. 2152–2150 B.C.
First Intermediate Period ca. 2150–2030 B.C.
Dynasty 8–Dynasty 10 ca. 2150–2030 B.C.
Dynasty 11 (first half) ca. 2124–2030 B.C.
Mentuhotep I ca. 2124–2120 B.C.
Intef I ca. 2120–2108 B.C.
Intef II (13.182.3) ca. 2108–2059 B.C.
Intef III ca. 2059–2051 B.C.
Mentuhotep II (07.230.2) ca. 2051–2030 B.C.
Middle Kingdom ca. 2030–1640 B.C.
Dynasty 11 (second half) ca. 2030–1981 B.C.
Mentuhotep II (cont.) (07.230.2) ca. 2030–2000 B.C.
Mentuhotep III ca. 2000–1988 B.C.
Qakare Intef ca. 1985 B.C.
Sekhentibre ca. 1985 B.C.
Menekhkare ca. 1985 B.C.
Mentuhotep IV ca. 1988–1981 B.C.
Dynasty 12 ca. 1981–1802 B.C.
Amenemhat I (08.200.5) ca. 1981–1952 B.C.
Senwosret I ca. 1961–1917 B.C.
Amenemhat II (14.3.17) ca. 1919–1885 B.C.
Senwosret II ca. 1887–1878 B.C.
Senwosret III (26.7.1394) ca. 1878–1840 B.C.
Amenemhat III (24.7.1) ca. 1859–1813 B.C.
Amenemhat IV ca. 1814–1805 B.C.
Nefrusobek ca. 1805–1802 B.C.
Dynasty 13 ca. 1802–1640 B.C.
Second Intermediate Period ca. 1640–1540 B.C.
Dynasty 14–Dynasty 16 ca. 1640–1635 B.C.
Dynasty 17 ca. 1635–1550 B.C.
Tao I ca. 1560 B.C.
Tao II ca. 1560 B.C.
Kamose ca. 1552–1550 B.C.
New Kingdom ca. 1550–1070 B.C.
Dynasty 18 ca. 1550–1295 B.C.
amadah: A small temple of the eighteenth Egyptian dynasty, near Derri in Nubia, converted by the Coptic Christians into a church. It is one of the few peripteral temples of Egypt, surrounded by square piers with a pronaos of four polygonal columns. It measures 71 feet 6 inches by 32 feet 2 inches. Inscriptions of great historical value remain.
Ahmose (2006.270) ca. 1550–1525 B.C.
Amenhotep I (26.3.30a) ca. 1525–1504 B.C.
Thutmose I (30.4.137) ca. 1504–1492 B.C.
Thutmose II ca. 1492–1479 B.C.
Thutmose III (1995.21) ca. 1479–1425 B.C.
Hatshepsut (as regent) ca. 1479–1473 B.C.
Hatshepsut (29.3.2) ca. 1473–1458 B.C.
Amenhotep II (66.99.20) ca. 1427–1400 B.C.
Thutmose IV (30.8.45a–c) ca. 1400–1390 B.C.
Amenhotep III (56.138) ca. 1390–1352 B.C.
Amenhotep IV ca. 1353–1349 B.C.
Akhenaten (66.99.40) ca. 1349–1336 B.C.
Neferneferuaton ca. 1338–1336 B.C.
Smenkhkare ca. 1336 B.C.
Tutankhamun (50.6) ca. 1336–1327 B.C.
Aya ca. 1327–1323 B.C.
Haremhab (23.10.1) ca. 1323–1295 B.C.
Dynasty 19 ca. 1295–1186 B.C.
Ramesses I (11.155.3a) ca. 1295–1294 B.C.
Seti I (22.2.21) ca. 1294–1279 B.C.
Ramesses II ca. 1279–1213 B.C.
ramesseum: A group of buildings in Egypt, among the ruins of Thebes, believed to serve as a memorial to Ramses II, and including an enormous gateway with pylons, two great courts surrounded by colonnades, and one large hypostyle hall, with many smaller though still important rooms.
Merneptah (26.7.1451) ca. 1213–1203 B.C.
Amenmesse (34.2.2) ca. 1203–1200 B.C.
Seti II ca. 1200–1194 B.C.
Siptah (14.6.179) ca. 1194–1188 B.C.
Tawosret ca. 1188–1186 B.C.
Dynasty 20 ca. 1186–1070 B.C.
Sethnakht ca. 1186–1184 B.C.
Ramesses III (33.8.7) ca. 1184–1153 B.C.
Ramesses IV (30.8.234) ca. 1153–1147 B.C.
Ramesses V ca. 1147–1143 B.C.
Ramesses VI ca. 1143–1136 B.C.
Ramesses VII ca. 1136–1129 B.C.
Ramesses VIII ca. 1129–1126 B.C.
Ramesses IX ca. 1126–1108 B.C.
Ramesses X ca. 1108–1099 B.C.
Ramesses XI ca. 1099–1070 B.C.
Hight Priests (HP) of Amun ca. 1080–1070 B.C.
HP Herihor ca. 1080–1074 B.C.
HP Paiankh ca. 1074–1070 B.C.
Third Intermediate Period ca. 1070–713 B.C.
Dynasty 21 ca. 1070–945 B.C.
Smendes ca. 1070–1044 B.C.
HP Painedjem I ca. 1070–1032 B.C.
HP Masaharta ca. 1054–1046 B.C.
HP Djedkhonsefankh ca. 1046–1045 B.C.
HP Menkheperre ca. 1045–992 B.C.
Amenemnisu ca. 1044–1040 B.C.
Psusennes I ca. 1040–992 B.C.
Amenemope ca. 993–984 B.C.
HP Smendes ca. 992–990 B.C.
HP Painedjem II ca. 990–969 B.C.
Osochor ca. 984–978 B.C.
Siamun ca. 978–959 B.C.
HP Psusennes ca. 969–959 B.C.
Psusennes II ca. 959–945 B.C.
Dynasty 22 (Libyan) ca. 945–712 B.C.
Sheshonq I ca. 945–924 B.C.
Osorkon I ca. 924–889 B.C.
Sheshonq II ca. 890 B.C.
Takelot I ca. 889–874 B.C.
Osorkon II ca. 874–850 B.C.
Harsiese ca. 865 B.C.
Takelot II ca. 850–825 B.C.
Sheshonq III ca. 825–773 B.C.
Pami ca. 773–767 B.C.
Sheshonq V ca. 767–730 B.C.
Osorkon IV ca. 730–712 B.C.
Dynasty 23 ca. 818–713 B.C.
Pedubaste I ca. 818–793 B.C.
Iuput I ca. 800 B.C.
Sheshonq IV ca. 793–787 B.C.
Osorkon III ca. 787–759 B.C.
Takelot III ca. 764–757 B.C.
Rudamun ca. 757–754 B.C.
Iuput II ca. 754–712 B.C.
Peftjaubast ca. 740–725 B.C.
Namlot ca. 740 B.C.
Thutemhat ca. 720 B.C.
Dynasty 24 ca. 724–712 B.C.
Tefnakht ca. 724–717 B.C.
Bakenrenef ca. 717–712 B.C.
Late Period ca. 712–332 B.C.
Dynasty 25 (Nubian) ca. 712–664 B.C.
Piye (establishes Nubian Dynasty in Egypt) ca. 743–712 B.C.
Shabaqo (55.144.6) ca. 712–698 B.C.
Shebitqo (65.45) ca. 698–690 B.C.
Taharqo (loses control of Lower Egypt) (41.160.104) ca. 690–664 B.C.
Tanutamani (loses control of Upper Egypt) ca. 664–653 B.C.
Dynasty 26 (Saite) 688–252 B.C.
Nikauba 688–672 B.C.
Necho I 672–664 B.C.
Psamtik I (X.358) 664–610 B.C.
Necho II 610–595 B.C.
Psamtik II 595–589 B.C.
Apries (09.183.1a) 589–570 B.C.
Amasis (35.9.3) 570–526 B.C.
Psamtik III 526–525 B.C.
Dynasty 27 (Persian) 525–404 B.C.
Cambyses 525–522 B.C.
Darius I 521–486 B.C.
Xerxes I 486–466 B.C.
Artaxerxes I 465–424 B.C.
Darius II 424–404 B.C.
Dynasty 28 522–399 B.C.
Pedubaste III 522–520 B.C.
Psamtik IV ca. 470 B.C.
Inaros ca. 460 B.C.
Amyrtaios I ca. 460 B.C.
Thannyros ca. 445 B.C.
Pausiris ca. 445 B.C.
Psamtik V ca. 445 B.C.
Psamtik VI ca. 400 B.C.
Amyrtaios II 404–399 B.C.
Dynasty 29 399–380 B.C.
Nepherites I 399–393 B.C.
Psammuthis 393 B.C.
Achoris 393–380 B.C.
Nepherites II 380 B.C.
Dynasty 30 380–343 B.C.
Nectanebo I 380–362 B.C.
Teos 365–360 B.C.
Nectanebo II (34.2.1) 360–343 B.C.
Persians 343–332 B.C.
Khabebesh 343–332 B.C.
Artaxerxes III Ochus 343–338 B.C.
Arses 338–336 B.C.
Darius III Codoman 335–332 B.C.
Achaemenian: Period in Persian architecture from the time of Cyrus the Great (d. 529 BC) until the death of Darius III (330 BC). Its most elaborate buildings include the vast palace complex at Persepolis which included large relief decorations, while the apadana (or Hall of the Hundred Columns) had elaborate capitals with vertical volutes and animal-heads. Reliefs of green, yellow, and blue glazed bricks were employed at the palaces of Susa, and the rock-cut tombs at Naksh-i-Rustam have similar capitals to those of Persepolis, with door-surrounds derived from Egyptian precedents.
Achaemenid: Period in Persian architecture from the time of Cyrus the Great (d. 529 BC) until the death of Darius III (330 BC). Its most elaborate buildings include the vast palace complex at Persepolis which included large relief decorations, while the apadana (or Hall of the Hundred Columns) had elaborate capitals with vertical volutes and animal-heads. Reliefs of green, yellow, and blue glazed bricks were employed at the palaces of Susa, and the rock-cut tombs at Naksh-i-Rustam have similar capitals to those of Persepolis, with door-surrounds derived from Egyptian precedents.
Macedonian Period 332–304 B.C.
Alexander the Great (52.127.4) 332–323 B.C.
Philip Arrhidaeus 323–316 B.C.
Alexander IV 316–304 B.C.
Ptolemaic Period 304–30 B.C.
Ptolemy I Soter I 304–284 B.C.
Ptolemy II Philadelphos (12.187.31) 285–246 B.C.
Arsinoe II (20.2.21) 278–270 B.C.
Ptolemy III Euergetes I (66.99.134) 246–221 B.C.
Berenike II 246–221 B.C.
Ptolemy IV Philopator (66.99.166) 222–205 B.C.
Ptolemy V Epiphanes 205–180 B.C.
Harwennefer 205–199 B.C.
Ankhwennefer 199–186 B.C.
Cleopatra I 194–176 B.C.
Ptolemy VI Philometor 180–145 B.C.
Cleopatra II 175–115 B.C.
Ptolemy VIII Euergetes II 170–116 B.C.
Harsiese ca. 130 B.C.
Ptolemy VII Neos Philopator 145–144 B.C.
Ptolemy IX Soter II 116–80 B.C.
Also see Architecture index.
List of Rulers of Ancient Egypt and Numbia, Metropolitan Museum of Art.