Architecture / Empire / Denmark

Gorm the Old (d. c. 958)
Harald I (c. 958?–c. 985)
Sweyn I (c. 987–1014)

10th century
Kingdom of Denmark unified and Christianity introduced.

Harald II (1014–18)
Canute II (1019–35)
Hardecanute (1028–42)
Magnus I Olafsson (1042–47)
Sweyn II Estridsen (1047–74)
Harald III (1074–80)
Canute IV (1080–86)
Olaf I (1086–95)
Erik I (1095–1103)
Niels (1104–34)
Erik II (1134–37)
Erik III (1137–46)
Sweyn III/Canute V/Valdemar I (1146–57)
Valdemar I (1157–82)
Canute VI (1182–1202)
Valdemar II (1202–41)
Erik IV (1241–50)
Abel (1250–52)
Christopher I (1252–59)
Erik V (1259–86)
Erik VI (1286–1319)
Christopher II (1319–32)
(interregnum; 1332–40)
Valdemar IV Atterdag (1340–75)
Olaf II (1376–87)
Margaret I (1387–1412)


Union of Kalmar unites Denmark, Sweden and Norway under a single monarch. Denmark is the dominant power.


Erik VII of Pomerania (1412–39)
Christopher III of Bavaria (1440–48)
Christian I (1448–81)
John (Hans) (1481–1513)
Christian II (1513–23)
Frederick I (1523–33)
Christian III (1534–59)
Frederick II (1559–88)
Christian IV (1588–1648)
Frederick III (1648–70)
Christian V (1670–99)
Frederick IV (1699–1730)

Greenland becomes Danish province.

Christian VI (1730–46)
Frederick V (1746–66)
Christian VII (1766–1808)
Frederick VI (1808–39)

Denmark cedes Norway to Sweden.

Christian VIII (1839–48)
Frederick VII (1848–63)

Denmark becomes constitutional monarchy; two-chamber parliament established.

Christian IX (1863–1906)
Frederick VIII (1906–12)
Christian X (1912–47)

Expressionism: North European architectural style prevalent in the first quarter of the twentieth century that did not treat buildings as purely functional, but also as exciting sculptured objects in their own right, e.g. Gaudi in Spain, Klint in Denmark, Poelzig and Mendelsohn in Germany.

The modern period
Denmark is neutral during World War I.

Universal suffrage comes into effect.

Welfare state established by governments dominated by social democrats.

Denmark signs 10-year non-aggression pact with Nazi Germany.

Nazi invasion meets virtually no initial resistance. Government accepts occupation in exchange for measure of control over domestic affairs.

A determined campaign by the Danish resistance prompts Germany to take over full control of Danish affairs. Thousands of Danish Jews manage to escape to Sweden.

Germany surrenders and occupation ends. Denmark recognises Iceland’s independence, which had been declared in 1944.

Frederick IX (1947–72)

Postwar recovery
Faroe Islands granted self-government within the Danish state.

Denmark joins Nato.

Denmark becomes founder member of Nordic Council.

Constitutional change leads to a single-chamber parliament elected by proportional representation; female accession to the Danish throne is permitted; Greenland becomes integral part of Denmark.

Denmark joins European Free Trade Association.

King Frederick IX dies and is succeeded by his daughter Margrethe II.

Margrethe II (1972– )

European integration
Denmark joins the European Economic Community.

Greenland is granted home rule. Denmark retains control over Greenland’s foreign affairs and defence.

Poul Schlueter becomes first Conservative prime minister for almost a century.

Legislation passed banning construction of nuclear power plants in Denmark.

Danish voters reject the Maastricht Treaty on further European integration in a referendum.

Schlueter resigns after being accused of lying over a scandal involving Tamil refugees; social democrat Poul Nyrup Rasmussen becomes prime minister.

Poul Nyrup Rasmussen returned to power in general election.

Poul Nyrup Rasmussen again returned to power.

Danes reject adoption of the euro as their national currency by 53% to 47%.

2001 November
Elections put right-wing coalition led by Anders Fogh Rasmussen into government. Rasmussen campaigned on a pledge to tighten immigration rules and put lid on taxes. The election saw the far-right Danish People’s Party win 22 seats and become the third largest party in parliament.

2002 February
New government measures aimed at reducing immigration spark controversy.

2004 August
US and Denmark sign deal to modernise Thule air base on Greenland.

2005 February
Liberal Party leader Anders Fogh Rasmussen wins second term as prime minister in coalition with Conservative Party. Far-right People’s Party strengthens presence in parliament by two seats.

2005 July
Diplomatic dispute flares up with Canada over the disputed tiny island of Hans in the Arctic.

2006 January – February
Cartoon depictions of the Muslim prophet Muhammad, published by a Danish newspaper in 2005, spark belated mass protests among Muslims in a number of countries as well as unofficial boycotts of Danish goods.

2007 February
Government says Denmark’s 470 ground troops will leave Iraq by the end of August. Denmark was one of the original coalition countries to take part in the 2003 invasion.

2007 November
Government of Prime Minister Fogh Rasmussen wins third term after early elections.

2008 February
Police uncover a plot to kill one of the cartoonists whose depictions of Muhammad sparked outrage across the Muslim world in 2005. Major papers reprint one of the cartoons, prompting some protests.

2008 November
Greenland referendum approves plans to seek more autonomy from Denmark and a greater share of oil revenues off the island’s coast.

2009 April
Finance Minister Lars Lokke Rasmussen takes over as prime minister and acting Liberal Party leader on the resignation of Anders Fogh Rasmussen, who had been elected NATO secretary-general.

2009 July
Denmark plans to set up an Arctic military command and task force because the melting ice cap is opening access to Greenland and the Faroe Islands.

2009 December
Denmark hosts UN climate change summit. Great hopes are invested in the Copenhagen summit but it ends without a legally binding global treaty being agreed.

2010 January
A Somali man is charged with trying to kill the Danish artist whose drawing of the Muslim prophet Muhammad in 2005 sparked riots around the world.

2010 December
Three men are charged with planning to attack the offices of a newspaper which printed cartoons of the Muslim prophet Muhammad. A fourth is released and a fifth is held in Sweden.

2011 February
Denmark approves underwater tunnel from Lolland island to the German island of Fehmarn, at a cost of $5.9bn. It will be built in 2014-2020 and speed up transport links between Scandinavia and continental Europe.

Minority government

2015 June
Lars Lokke Rasmussen returns as prime minister at the head of a Venstre (Liberal) minority government after right-wing parties defeat the centre-left coalition of Helle Thorning-Schmidt.

2016 November
Prime Minister Lars Lokke Rasmussen expands his minority government by forming a coalition with the Liberal Alliance and the Conservatives.


Also see Architecture index.


Sources Cited

Denmark profile – Timeline, BBC

List of Danish monarchs, Encyclopedia Britannica