Gorm the Old (d. c. 958)
Harald I (c. 958?–c. 985)
Sweyn I (c. 987–1014)
Kingdom of Denmark unified and Christianity introduced.
Harald II (1014–18)
Canute II (1019–35)
Magnus I Olafsson (1042–47)
Sweyn II Estridsen (1047–74)
Harald III (1074–80)
Canute IV (1080–86)
Olaf I (1086–95)
Erik I (1095–1103)
Erik II (1134–37)
Erik III (1137–46)
Sweyn III/Canute V/Valdemar I (1146–57)
Valdemar I (1157–82)
Canute VI (1182–1202)
Valdemar II (1202–41)
Erik IV (1241–50)
Christopher I (1252–59)
Erik V (1259–86)
Erik VI (1286–1319)
Christopher II (1319–32)
Valdemar IV Atterdag (1340–75)
Olaf II (1376–87)
Margaret I (1387–1412)
Union of Kalmar unites Denmark, Sweden and Norway under a single monarch. Denmark is the dominant power.
Erik VII of Pomerania (1412–39)
Christopher III of Bavaria (1440–48)
Christian I (1448–81)
John (Hans) (1481–1513)
Christian II (1513–23)
Frederick I (1523–33)
Christian III (1534–59)
Frederick II (1559–88)
Christian IV (1588–1648)
Frederick III (1648–70)
Christian V (1670–99)
Frederick IV (1699–1730)
Greenland becomes Danish province.
Christian VI (1730–46)
Frederick V (1746–66)
Christian VII (1766–1808)
Frederick VI (1808–39)
Denmark cedes Norway to Sweden.
Christian VIII (1839–48)
Frederick VII (1848–63)
Denmark becomes constitutional monarchy; two-chamber parliament established.
Expressionism: North European architectural style prevalent in the first quarter of the twentieth century that did not treat buildings as purely functional, but also as exciting sculptured objects in their own right, e.g. Gaudi in Spain, Klint in Denmark, Poelzig and Mendelsohn in Germany.
The modern period
Denmark is neutral during World War I.
Universal suffrage comes into effect.
Welfare state established by governments dominated by social democrats.
Denmark signs 10-year non-aggression pact with Nazi Germany.
Germany surrenders and occupation ends. Denmark recognises Iceland’s independence, which had been declared in 1944.
Frederick IX (1947–72)
Faroe Islands granted self-government within the Danish state.
Denmark joins Nato.
Denmark becomes founder member of Nordic Council.
Denmark joins European Free Trade Association.
King Frederick IX dies and is succeeded by his daughter Margrethe II.
Margrethe II (1972– )
Denmark joins the European Economic Community.
Greenland is granted home rule. Denmark retains control over Greenland’s foreign affairs and defence.
Poul Schlueter becomes first Conservative prime minister for almost a century.
Legislation passed banning construction of nuclear power plants in Denmark.
Danish voters reject the Maastricht Treaty on further European integration in a referendum.
Schlueter resigns after being accused of lying over a scandal involving Tamil refugees; social democrat Poul Nyrup Rasmussen becomes prime minister.
Poul Nyrup Rasmussen returned to power in general election.
Poul Nyrup Rasmussen again returned to power.
Danes reject adoption of the euro as their national currency by 53% to 47%.
Elections put right-wing coalition led by Anders Fogh Rasmussen into government. Rasmussen campaigned on a pledge to tighten immigration rules and put lid on taxes. The election saw the far-right Danish People’s Party win 22 seats and become the third largest party in parliament.
New government measures aimed at reducing immigration spark controversy.
Liberal Party leader Anders Fogh Rasmussen wins second term as prime minister in coalition with Conservative Party. Far-right People’s Party strengthens presence in parliament by two seats.
Diplomatic dispute flares up with Canada over the disputed tiny island of Hans in the Arctic.
2006 January – February
Cartoon depictions of the Muslim prophet Muhammad, published by a Danish newspaper in 2005, spark belated mass protests among Muslims in a number of countries as well as unofficial boycotts of Danish goods.
Government of Prime Minister Fogh Rasmussen wins third term after early elections.
Police uncover a plot to kill one of the cartoonists whose depictions of Muhammad sparked outrage across the Muslim world in 2005. Major papers reprint one of the cartoons, prompting some protests.
Greenland referendum approves plans to seek more autonomy from Denmark and a greater share of oil revenues off the island’s coast.
Finance Minister Lars Lokke Rasmussen takes over as prime minister and acting Liberal Party leader on the resignation of Anders Fogh Rasmussen, who had been elected NATO secretary-general.
Denmark hosts UN climate change summit. Great hopes are invested in the Copenhagen summit but it ends without a legally binding global treaty being agreed.
Denmark approves underwater tunnel from Lolland island to the German island of Fehmarn, at a cost of $5.9bn. It will be built in 2014-2020 and speed up transport links between Scandinavia and continental Europe.
Prime Minister Lars Lokke Rasmussen expands his minority government by forming a coalition with the Liberal Alliance and the Conservatives.
Also see Architecture index.
List of Danish monarchs, Encyclopedia Britannica