2350 BCE
First code of laws by Urukagina, king of Lagash.

c. 2000 BCE
Babylon controls Fertile Crescent.

Mesopotamia: An ancient region in western Asia between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, comprising the lands of Sumer and Akkad and occupied successively by the Sumerians, Babylonians, Assyrians, and Persians: now part of Iraq.

Babylonian architecture: In ancient Babylon, architecture characterized by: mud-brick construction; walls articulated by pilasters and recesses (for aesthetic and structural reasons), sometimes faced with burnt and glazed brick; narrow rooms, mostly covered with flat timber and mud roofs; and extensive use of bitumen in drain and pavement construction and as mortar

ziggurat: A tiered temple from the Egyptian, Sumerian, or Babylonian times that had a pyramidal look to it. This shape was popular during the Art Deco era in buildings such as the Chrysler building.

processional way: A monumental roadway for ritual processions in ancient cities, e.g. Babylon.

papakhu: The holy of holies in an Assyrian or Babylonian temple.

Tower of Babel: A temple-tower presumed to be the great ziggurat at Babylon, which no longer survives…

hanging gardens: Gardens planted in a series of stepped hillside terraces. The paradigm, was the Hanging Gardens of Babylon, although it appears there were exemplars at Nineveh laid out under the Assyrian Sennacherib constructed on an artificial hill and featuring running water

Amorite Dynasty

Kings of Larsa (1961 BCE – 1674 BCE)

Naplanum (c. 1961 BCE – 1940 BCE) Contemporary of Ibbi-Suen of Ur III
Emisum (c. 1940 BCE – 1912 BCE)
Samium (c. 1912 BCE – 1877 BCE)

1894 BCE
Amorite dynasty established in Babylon.

Zabaia (c. 1877 BCE – 1868 BCE) Son of Samium, First royal inscription
Gungunum (c. 1868 BCE – 1841 BCE) Gutian king who Gained independence from Lipit-Eshtar of Isin
Abisare (c. 1841 BCE – 1830 BCE)

 

First Babylonian Dynasty  (1830 BCE – 1531 BCE)

Sumu-abum or Su-abu (c. 1830 BCE – 1817 BCE) Contemporary of Ilushuma of Assyria
Sumu-la-El (c. 1817 BCE – 1781 BCE) Contemporary of Erishum I of Assyria
Sabium or Sabum (c. 1781 BCE – 1767 BCE) Son of Sumu-la-El
Apil-Sin (c. 1767 BCE – 1749 BCE) Son of Sabium
Sin-muballit (c. 1748 BCE – 1729 BCE) Son of Apil-Sin, father of Hammuarabi
Hammurabi (c. 1728 BCE – 1686 BCE) Contemporary of Zimri-Lim of Mari, Siwe-palar-huppak of Elam and Shamshi-Adad I

1795 BCE – 1750 BCE
Reign of Hammurabi, king of Babylon.

1792 BCE – 1750 BCE
Reign of Hammurabi of Babylon, Ashur becomes vassal state.

Code of Hammurabi: A Babylonian legal code instituted by Hammurabi in the mid-18th century B.C., based on principles absorbed from Sumerian culture.

c. 1792 BCE
King Hammurabi builds walls of Babylon.

1792 BCE – 1750 BCE
Marduk ascends as the most powerful god during the reign of King Hammurabi of Babylon.

c. 1792 BCE – c. 1750 BCE
Nabu becomes established as an important deity under the reign of Hammurabi of Babylon.

1792 BCE – 1750 BCE
Ereshkigal’s place in the Mesopotamian Pantheon solidifies during the reign of King Hammurabi of Babylon.

1792 BCE – 1750 BCE
Worship of Assur overshadowed by Marduk during the reign of Hammurabi of Babylon.

1792 BCE – 1750 BCE
Ninhursag, along with other feminine deities, loses status during the reign of Hammurabi of Babylon.

1792 BCE – 1750 BCE
Female deities in Mesopotamia decline in status during the reign of Amorite king Hammurabi of Babylon; but not Gula.

1792 BCE – 1750 BCE
Reign of Hammurabi of Babylon who credits Shamash with his famous law code.

1787 BCE
Hammurabi of Babylon conquers Uruk and Isin.

c. 1772 BCE
The Code of Hammurabi: One of the earliest codes of law in the world.

c. 1761 BCE
Zimri-Lim, the last ruler of Mari dies for unknown reasons. His former ally, Hammurabi of Babylon, captures the city of Mari.

c. 1760 BCE – c. 1757 BCE
Hammurabi of Babylon destroys the city of Mari. The people of Mari are spared according to Hammurabi.

1755 BCE
Hammurabi rules the whole of Mesopotamia from Babylon.

c. 1700 BCE
The Code of Hammurabi, with laws regulating beer, written at Babylon.

 

Nur-Adad (c. 1801 BCE – 1785 BCE) Contemporary of Sumu-la-El of Babylon
Sin-Iddinam (c. 1785 BCE – 1778 BCE) Son of Nur-Adad
Sin-Eribam (c. 1778 BCE – 1776 BCE)
Sin-Iqisham (c. 1776 BCE – 1771 BCE) Contemporary of Zambiya of Isin, Son of Sin-Eribam
Silli-Adad (c. 1771 BCE – 1770 BCE)
Warad-Sin (c. 1770 BCE – 1758 BCE) Possible co-regency with Kudur-Mabuk his father
Rim-Sin I (c. 1758 BCE – 1699 BCE) Contemporary of Irdanene of Uruk, Defeated by Hammurabi of Babylon, Brother of Warad-Sin
Hammurabi of Babylon (c. 1699 BCE – 1686 BCE) Official Babylonian rule, code of Hammurabi
Samsu-iluna of Babylon (c. 1686 BCE – 1678 BCE) Official Babylonian rule, son of Hammuarabi
Rim-Sin II (c. 1678 BCE – 1674 BCE) Killed in revolt against Babylon

Abi-eshuh or Abieshu c. 1648–1620 BC Son of Samsu-iluna
Ammi-ditana c. 1620–1583 BC Son of Abi-eshuh
Ammi-saduqa or Ammisaduqa c. 1582–1562 BC Venus tablet of Ammisaduqa
Samsu-Ditana c. 1562–1531 BC Sack of Babylon

 

Kassite Dynasty (1600-1155)

Agum II or Agum-Kakrime Returns Marduk statue to Babylon
Burnaburiash I (c. 1500 BCE) (short) Treaty with Puzur-Ashur III of Assyria
Kashtiliash III
Ulamburiash (c. 1480 BCE) (short) Conquers the first Sealand Dynasty
Agum III (c. 1470 BCE) (short) possible campaigns Against “The Sealand” and “in Dilmun”
Karaindash (c. 1410 BCE) (short) Treaty with Ashur-bel-nisheshu of Assyria
Kadashman-harbe I (c. 1400 BCE) (short) Campaign against the Sutû
Kurigalzu I (c. x-1375 BCE) (short) Founder of Dur-Kurigalzu and contemporary of Thutmose IV
Kadashman-Enlil I (c. 1374—1360 BCE) (short) Contemporary of Amenophis III of the Egyptian Amarna letters
Burnaburiash II (c. 1359—1333 BCE) (short) Contemporary of Akhenaten and Ashur-uballit I
Kara-hardash (c. 1333 BCE) (short) Grandson of Ashur-uballit I of Assyria
Nazi-Bugash or Shuzigash c. 1333 BCE) (short) Usurper “son of a nobody”
Kurigalzu II (c. 1332—1308 BCE) (short) Son of Burnaburiash II, Lost ? Battle of Sugagi with Enlil-nirari of Assyria
Nazi-Maruttash (c. 1307—1282 BCE) (short) Lost territory to Adad-nirari I of Assyria
Kadashman-Turgu (c. 1281—1264 BCE) (short) Contemporary of Hattusili III of the Hittites
Kadashman-Enlil II (c. 1263—1255 BCE) (short) Contemporary of Hattusili III of the Hittites
Kudur-Enlil (c. 1254—1246 BCE) (short) Time of Nippur renaissance
Shagarakti-Shuriash (c. 1245—1233 BCE) (short) “Non-son of Kudur-Enlil” according to Tukulti-Ninurta I of Assyria
Kashtiliashu IV (c. 1232—1225 BCE) (short) Deposed by Tukulti-Ninurta I of Assyria
Enlil-nadin-shumi (c. 1224 BCE) (short) Assyrian vassal king
Kadashman-Harbe II (c. 1223 BCE) (short) Assyrian vassal king
Adad-shuma-iddina (c. 1222—1217 BCE) (short) Assyrian vassal king
Adad-shuma-usur (c. 1216—1187 BCE) (short) Sender of rude letter to Aššur-nirari and Ilī-ḫaddâ, the kings of Assyria
Meli-Shipak II (c. 1186—1172 BCE) (short) Correspondence with Ninurta-apal-Ekur confirming foundation of Near East chronology
Marduk-apla-iddina I (c. 1171—1159 BCE) (short)
Zababa-shuma-iddin (c. 1158 BCE) (short) Defeated by Shutruk-Nahhunte of Elam
Enlil-nadin-ahi (c. 1157 – 1155 BCE) (short) Defeated by Kutir-Nahhunte II of Elam

1595 BCE
King Mursilis of the Hittites sacks Babylon. Begin of Babylonian “dark ages.”

1595 BCE
Hittites under Mursilli I sack Babylon, ending Amorite rule.

c. 1595 BCE
Nabu regarded as the son of Marduk during the Kassite Period in Babylon.

c. 1225 BCE
Tukulti-Ninurta I marches on Babylon and sacks it, temples plundered.

c. 1225 BCE
Tukulti-Ninurta I sacks Babylon.

1220 BCE
Babylon is under Assyrian control.

1125 BCE – 1104 BCE
Statue of Marduk returned to Babylon during the reign of Nebuchadnezzar I.

1125 BCE – 1104 BCE
Gula invoked in curse on memorial tablet from the reign of King Nebuchadnezar I of Babylon.

853 BCE
Babylonian kings depend on Assyrian military support.

c. 800 BCE
Probable date of composition of The Wrath of Erra, describing Nergal’s destruction of Babylon.

c. 750 BCE
Sophisticated networks of aqueducts are constructed at Babylon.

Nabu-nadin-zer (747 BCE – 734 BCE)

734 BCE
Babylon is captured by Chaldeans.

Nabu-shum-ishkun III (733 BCE – 732 BCE)
Nabu-mukin-zer (731 BCE – 729 BCE)

729 BCE
Babylon is occupied by Assyrians.

729 BCE
Intervention in Babylonian Civil War. Tiglath Pileser III crowns himself king of Babylon.

729 BCE
Tiglath Pileser III reigns at height as King of Babylon and Assyria.

Pul (Tiglath-pilcser III) (729 BCE – 727 BCE)
Ulula (Shalmancsar v) (727 BCE – 722 BCE)
Merodach-baladan I (722 BCE – 710 BCE)

c. 718 BCE
Sargon II defeated at Babylon by Elamites.

Sargon; 710-705 BCE)

710 BCE – 707 BCE
Sargon II resides at Babylon, rules Assyria from Babylonian court.

710 BCE
Sargon II conquers Babylon and the southern territories.

706 BCE
Sargon II returns from Babylon and moves into palace in Dur-Sharrukin.

Sennacherib (704-702 BCE)
Marduk-zakir-shum (1 month)
Merodach-baladan II (9 months)
Bel-ibni (702-700 BCE)
Ashur-nadin-shum (700-694 BCE)

c. 698 BCE – c. 694 BCE
War with Elam and Babylon.

Nergal-ushezib (694-693 BCE)
Mushczib-Marduk (692-689 BCE)

689 BCE
Sack of Babylon, city is destroyed.

Sennacherib (689-681 BCE)

c. 680 BCE
Esarhaddon decrees restoration of Babylon.

sarhaddon (681-668 BCE)
Ashurbanipal (668-626 BCE)
Shamash-shum-ukin (668-648 BCE)

653 BCE – c. 648 BCE
Babylon rebels, Siege of Babylon.

c. 647 BCE – c. 648 BCE
Fall of Babylon the Ashurbanipal.

Kandalanu (648-626 BCE)
Ashur-etil-ilani-ukin (626 BCE)

 

Neo-Babylonian Rulers

Nabopolassar (625 BCE – 604 BCE)
612 BCE
Nineveh is sacked and burned by combined forces of Babylonians and Medes.

Tower of Babel: A temple-tower presumed to be the great ziggurat at Babylon, which no longer survives…

605 BCE – 549 BCE
Babylon rules over the Assyrian regions.

Nebuchadnezzar II (605 BCE – 562 BCE)

605 BCE – 562 BCE
The Hanging Gardens of Babylon, according to tradition, are built by Nebuchadnezzar II.

Hanging Gardens of Babylon: A series of irrigated ornamental gardens planted on the terraces of the Citadel, the palace complex in ancient Babylon: regarded as one of the Seven Wonders of the World.

Seven Wonders of the Ancient World: Giza Pyramids; Hanging Gardens and Walls of Babylon; Temple of Artemis, Ephesus; Statue of Zeus, Olympia; Mausoleum, Halicarnassus; Colossus of Rhodes; and the Alexandrian Pharos.

Temple of Solomon: The first Temple of Jerusalem, completed c950 B.C. by Phoenician artisans under the direction of King Solomon and destroyed by Nebuchadnezzar II in 586 B.C. Based on Canaanite and Phoenician prototypes, it was oblong in shape, and consisted of three main parts: an outer hall (ulam), the main sanctuary (hekhal), and the holy of holies (debir), all decorated with massive carvings in ivory, gold, and cedar.

605 BCE – 562 BCE
Nebuchadnezzar II is king of Babylon.

601 BCE
Nebuchadnezzar II of Babylon unsuccessfully attempts to invade Egypt.

597 BCE – 587 BCE
Jews are deported to Babylonia.

597 BCE
Babylonian king Nebuchadnezar captures Jerusalem.

587 BCE – 539 BCE
Jewish exile in Babylonia.

585 BCE – 572 BCE
Nebuchadnezzar II of Babylon besieges Tyre, unsuccessfully.

c. 575 BCE
Nebuchadnezzar II builds the Ishtar Gate and great walls of Babylon.

Amel-Marduk or Evil-Merodach (c. 562 BCE – 560 BCE)

Neriglissar (brother-in-law) (560 BCE – 556 BCE)

Labosoarchad or Lâbâši-Marduk (556 BCE)

c. 556 BCE – 539 BCE
Mother of King Nabonidus of Babylon holds the position of High Priestess of Nanna at Harran while his daughter does the same at Ur, thus consolidating the king’s power.

Nabonidus (555 BCE – 539 BCE)
Belshazzar (539 BCE)

 

Achaemenid Empire

Achaemenian: Period in Persian architecture from the time of Cyrus the Great (d. 529 BC) until the death of Darius III (330 BC). Its most elaborate buildings include the vast palace complex at Persepolis which included large relief decorations, while the apadana (or Hall of the Hundred Columns) had elaborate capitals with vertical volutes and animal-heads. Reliefs of green, yellow, and blue glazed bricks were employed at the palaces of Susa, and the rock-cut tombs at Naksh-i-Rustam have similar capitals to those of Persepolis, with door-surrounds derived from Egyptian precedents.

Achaemenid: Period in Persian architecture from the time of Cyrus the Great (d. 529 BC) until the death of Darius III (330 BC). Its most elaborate buildings include the vast palace complex at Persepolis which included large relief decorations, while the apadana (or Hall of the Hundred Columns) had elaborate capitals with vertical volutes and animal-heads. Reliefs of green, yellow, and blue glazed bricks were employed at the palaces of Susa, and the rock-cut tombs at Naksh-i-Rustam have similar capitals to those of Persepolis, with door-surrounds derived from Egyptian precedents.

hypostyle hall: A large space with a flat roof supported by rows of columns. Prevalent in ancient Egyptian and Achaemenid architecture. 2. A structure whose roofing was supported, within the perimeter, by groups of columns or piers of more than one height; clerestory lights sometimes were introduced.

Maurya: A member of ancient Indian people united northern India and established an empire c320 B.C.: architecture from this period shows the cultural influence of Achaemenid Persia and the first use of dressed stone.

Achaemenid architecture: An architecture developed under the Achaemenid rules of Persia (6th to 4th century BC) by a synthesis and eclectic adaptation of architectural elements which included those of surrounding countries. In the hypostyle hall it achieved a highly original new building type.

Persian architecture: The architecture developed under the Achaemenid dynasty of kings who ruled ancient Persia from 550 B.C. until its conquest by Alexander the Great in 331 B.C., characterized by a synthesis of architectural elements of surrounding countries, as Assyria, Egypt, and Ionian Greece.

Cyrus the Great, King of Babylon (539 BCE – 530 BCE)

539 BCE
Fall of Babylon, conquered by Cyrus of Persia. Return of the Jews.

c. 539 BCE
Cyrus the Great conquers Babylon; the Fertile Crescent is controlled by the Achaemenid Empire (The First Persian Empire).

Cambyses II, King of Persia (530 BCE – 522 BCE)

Bardiya, King of Persia (522 BC)

Darius I, King of Persia (522 BCE – 486 BCE)

tachara: The residence hall at Persepolis, built by Darius.

apadana: Square porticoed, free-standing hypostyle hall such as that in Persepolis built by Darius I.

apadhana: Square porticoed, free-standing hypostyle hall such as that in Persepolis built by Darius I.

Xerxes I, King of Persia (486 BCE – 465 BCE) 

hadish: A palace built by Xerxes at Persepolis.

485 BCE
Babylon is destroyed by Xerxes, King of Persia.

 

Ataxerxes I, King of Persia (465 BCE – 424 BCE)

Darius II, King of Persia (423 BCE – 404 BCE), son of Artaxerxes I and Cosmartidene

Ataxerxes II, King of Persia (404 BCE – 358 BCE), son of Darius II

Ataxerxes III, King of Persia (358 BCE – 338 BCE), son of Artaxerxes II and Stateira

Ataxerxes IV, King of Persia (338 BCE – 336 BCE), son of Artaxerxes III and Atossa

Darius III (336 BCE – 330 BCE), great-gradson of Darius II, defeated by Alexander the Great

 

Alexander the Great, King of Persia (330 BCE – 323 BCE)

Leaving Egypt in 331 BC, Alexander marched eastward into Mesopotamia (now northern Iraq) and again defeated Darius, at the Battle of Gaugamela.[69] Darius once more fled the field, and Alexander chased him as far as Arbela. Gaugamela would be the final and decisive encounter between the two. Darius fled over the mountains to Ecbatana (modern Hamedan), while Alexander captured Babylon.[70]

323 BCE
Alexander the Great receives Celtic delegations in Babylon.

On either 10 or 11 June 323 BC, Alexander died in the palace of Nebuchadnezzar II, in Babylon, at age 32.

321 BCE – 315 BCE
Seleucos rules the satrapy of Babylon.

 

Seleucid Empire (312 BCE – 63 BCE)

312 BCE
Seleucos conquers Babylon and founds the Seleucid dynasty.

c. 304 BCE – 64 BCE
Rule of the Seleucids in Mesopotamia.

3 Mar 566 CE
Babylon chronicles.

 

Also see Architecture index.

 

Sources Cited

Baylon Timeline, Ancient History Encyclopedia

Ancient Babylonia – List of Kings, Bible History Online