calli: In the Nahuatl, or Aztec, language of Mexico, a house. Prefixes were used to designated different kinds of houses, as Concalli, storehouse; Texcalli, a kitchen; Teccizcalli, House of Shells; Ticplantlacalli, stone house; Teocalli, House of God (From Teotl, the Highest Being), etc. The last term is now employed as meaning the mound upon which the temple stood, as well as the sacred building itself.
Meso-American architecture: Architecture of the Aztec, Mayan, and other Central-American civilizations of the first millennium BC until the Spanish Conquest of the 16th c. Most surviving structures had a ritualistic function, and included flat-topped pyramidal platforms with ramps and/or steps leading to the summit. Many buildings had sculpted friezes, borders, and panels, and the simple rectilinear blocky forms of the temples bore a resemblance to European stripped Classical buildings of 18th c. and later, while the formal symmetrical geometry of layouts and complexes had ceremonial roads and a gridiron plan. Meso-American architecture had a considerable influence on aspects of Art Deco.
Mexican architecture: A term too broad to be useful, for it includes the most primitive forms of shelter; the stone architecture of the Mayas, built at the beginning of the Christian era; the ceremonial grandeur of the Toltecs; the carved mosaic stonework of the Zapotecs; the luxurious terraced cities of the warlike Aztecs; and the varied splendors of the Spanish conquistadors who arrived in 1519.
Toltec architecture: An austere, geometric, Mesoamerican architecture, ca. 1000 A.D.; which formed the basis for Aztec architecture and other architecture in Mesoamerica; characterized by the use of colonnades several ranks deep, atlantes, square-carved roof supports, monumental serpent columns, balustrades, coatepantli, and narrative relief panels set in plain wall surfaces. Important examples of Toltec architecture are at Tula and Chichen Itza.
serpent column: A type of column used in Toltec architecture; featured a feathered serpent (Quetzalcoatl) whose open-fanged head serves as the base and whose tail rattlers are the roof support, as at Chichen Itza and Tula.
coatepantli: A carved wall featuring the serpent motif; introduced in Toltec architecture ca. 1000 A.D. at Tula (home of Quetzalcoatl, deified as the Feathered Serpent) and used extensively by the Aztecs thereafter.
tzompantli: At Chichen Itza, Yucatan, a Toltec stone altar platform decorated with carved skulls. 2. In Mesoamerica, a rack to which the heads of sacrificial victims were skewered; usually located in a sacred precinct.
The Mexica travel from their northern homeland of Aztlan. These early dates, and the existence and location of Aztlan are hotly debated.
Mexica settle near Lake Texcoco, in Chapultepec, though they are soon expelled by the Tepanecs
Tenochtitlán is settled by the Mexica
Building an Empire
Building of causeways with canals
Death of Tenoch, religious ruler of the Mexica
Acamapichtli, 1st Aztec Emperor (1376-1395)
The first king* of Tenochtitlán, Acamapichitli, rules
Original construction of Templo Mayor beings in Tenochtitlán
Huitzilihuitl, 2nd Aztec Emperor (1396-1417)
The second king of Tenochtitlán, Huitzilihuitzli, rules. An alliance with the Tepaneca is created.
Chimalpopoca, 3rd Aztec Emperor (1417-1427)
The third king, Chimalpopoca, has his relatively short reign. He is assasinated by the Tepaneca.
Izcoatl, 4th Aztec Emperor (1427-1440)
Tenochtitlán’s fourth king, Itzcoatl, reigns
Moctezuma I, 5th Aztec Emperor (1440-1469)
Tenochtitlán severely damaged by flooding
Famine in Tenochtitlán
Height of the Empire
Reign of the fifth king, Moctezuma I, who is also referred to as Montezuma I
Tenochtitlán’s sixth king, Azayactl, reigns
Axayacatl, 6th Aztec Emperor (1469-1481)
Reign of Tizoc, the seventh king of Tenochtitlán
Tizoc, 7th Aztec Emperor (1481-1486)
Ahuitzotl, 8th Aztec Emperor (1486-1502)
Rule of Ahuitzotl, eighth king of the city
Dedication of Great Temple (Templo Mayor) at Tenochtitlán. This was the 6th version of the temple.
(Christopher Columbus’s landing at Santa Domingo)
Moctezuma II, 9th Aztec Emperor (1502-1520)
Reign of Moctezuma II, or Montezuma II, most famous of the Aztec kings and ninth king of Tenochtitlán
Severe floods in Tenochtitlán
The Fall of the Empire
The appearance of a comet, believed to signify impending doom
1519 March 4
Landing of Hernan Cortes on the Yucatan peninsula
1519 Nov 8
Cortes arrives in Tenochtitlán
Cuitláhuac I, 10th Aztec Emperor (1520)
Cortes allies with Tlaxcala, enemies of the Aztec, assault on the empire begins. On the 1st of July, the Spanish forces were driven back. The Spanish and their native allies suffered heavy losses. (This is known as la Noche Triste – The Sad Night)
Rule of Cuitláhuac, tenth king of Tenochtitlán
Cuitláhuac dies from smallpox. Rule of Cuauhetemoc, eleventh and last king of the city.
Cuauhtémoc, 11th Aztec Emperor (1521-1525)
1521 Aug 13
Fall of Tenochtitlán. Cuauhetemoc surrenders to Cortes, destruction of the city
Cuauhetemoc is hung by the Spaniards
Juan Velázquez, 12th Aztec Emperor (1525)
Motelchiuhtzin Huitznahuatlailótlac aka Don Andrés de Tapia (1525-1530)
Xochiquentzin aka Don Pablo (1532-1536)
Don Diego de Alvarado, 15th Aztec Emperor (1539-1541)
don Diego de San Francisco, 16th Aztec Emperor (1541-1554)
Esteban de Guzmán (Not a tlatoani, but a judge (juez).) (1554-1557)
Don Cristóbal de Guzmán, 17th Aztec Emperor (1557-1562)
Luis de Guzmán, 17th Aztec Emperor (1563-1565)
Also see Architecture index.
Aztec Timeline, Aztec-History.com