Architecture / Design / Measure

  • declination: Angle formed between the naked of a wall and the inclined mutules of the Doric Order.
  • gradient: Angle of inclination, as of a road.
  • atmosphere: A unit of pressure equal to the normal pressure of the air at sea level, equal to 1.01325 x 105 N/m squared or about 14.7 pounds per square inch. Abbr.: atm.
  • atmospheric pressure: The pressure exerted by the earth’s atmosphere at any given point, usually expressed in terms of the height of a column of mercury. Also called barometric pressure.
  • barometer: An instrument for measuring atmospheric pressure, used in weather forecasting and determining elevation.
  • barometric pressure: The pressure exerted by the earth’s atmosphere at any given point, usually expressed in terms of the height of a column of mercury.
  • standard atmosphere: A standard unit of atmospheric pressure, having a value of 29.92 in. (760 mm) of mercury.
  • turbulence: Irregular motion of the atmosphere characterized by up-and-down currents.
  • buckle: To curve from the normal line or face under strain.
  • buckled: Past participle of buckle. In a special sense, corrugated; said of thin metal plates. The term was originally applied to corrugations of a peculiar form, connected with a patent.
  • buckling: The sudden lateral or torsional instability of a slender structural member induced by the action of a compressive load. Buckling can occur well before the yield stress of the material is reached.
  • buckling load: The axial load at which a column begins to deflect laterally and becomes unstable. Under a buckling load, a column cannot generate the internal forces necessary to restore its original linear condition. Any additional loading would cause the column to deflect further until collapse occurs in bending. Most columns in practice are subject to both compression and bending due to variation in material properties, initial crookedness in fabrication, or some eccentricity in load application. This bending often causes the actual buckling load to be slightly lower than the critical buckling load.
  • critical buckling load: The maximum axial load that can theoretically be applied to a column without causing it to buckle. The critical buckling load for a column is inversely proportional to the square of its effective length, and directly proportional to the modulus of elasticity of the material and to the moment of inertia of the cross section. Also called Euler buckling load.
  • critical buckling stress: The critical buckling load for a column divided by the area of its cross section.
  • Euler buckling load: The maximum axial load that can theoretically be applied to a column without causing it to buckle. The critical buckling load for a column is inversely proportional to the square of its effective length, and directly proportional to the modulus of elasticity of the material and to the moment of inertia of the cross section.
  • circular mil: A unit used principally for measuring the cross-sectional area of wire, equal to the area of a circle having a diameter of one mil.
  • air mile: A unit of distance used in sea or air navigation, equal to 1.852 kilometers or about 6,076 feet.
  • dimension: Measurement between two given points.
  • kilometer: A unit of length and distance equal to 1000 meters and equivalent to 3280.8 feet or 0.621 mile. Abbr.: km.
  • meter: Unit of linear measure in the metric system used in France and elsewhere; equivalent to 39.37 inches. 2. An apparatus for measuring the flow of liquid, gas, or electrical current. 3. The basic unit of length in the metric system, equivalent to 39.37 inches, originally defined as one ten-millionth of the distance from the equator to the pole measured on the meridian, later as the distance between two lines on a platinum-iridium bar preserved at the International Bureau of Weights and Measures near Paris, and now as 1/299,972,458 of the distance light travels in a vacuum in one second. Abbr.: m.
  • mile: A unit of distance on land equal to 5280 feet or 1760 yards, and equivalent to 1.609 km. Also called statute mile. Abbr.: mi.
  • millimeter: A metric unit of length equal to 1/1000 of a meter or 0.03937 of an inch.
  • nautical mile: A unit of distance used in sea or air navigation, equal to 1.852 kilometers or about 6,076 feet. Also called air mile.
  • personal distance: The variable and subjective distance at which one person feels comfortable talking to another. Also called personal distance.
  • sett-off: Distance or dimension taken perpendicularly to a main line or direction; the amount of a comparatively slight projection measured or considered as at right angles to the main structure or surface…
  • statute mile: A unit of distance on land equal to 5280 feet or 1760 yards, and equivalent to 1.609 km. Abbr.: mi.
  • vertical location: A technique for representing depth or distance by placing distant objects higher in the picture plane than objects perceived as being closer.
  • elastomeric: Having the elastic qualities of natural rubber.
  • vibration: Repeated motion back and forth of an elastic body. 2. Consolidation of newly placed concrete by the moderately high-frequency oscillations of a vibrator. 3. The oscillating, reciprocating, or other periodic motion of an elastic body or medium when forced from a position or state of equilibrium.
  • energy: The work a physical system is capable of doing is changing from its actual state to a specified reference state.
  • joule: The principle that the rate of production of heat by a direct current is directly proportional to the resistance of the circuit and to the square of the current. 2. The SI unit of work or energy equal to the work done when the point of application of a force of one newton moves through a distance of one meter in the direction of the force: approximately 0.7375 ft-lb. Also called newton-meter. Abbr.: J.
  • watt-hour: A unit of energy equal to energy of one watt operating for one hour and equivalent to 3,600 joules. Abbr.: Wh.
  • applied force: An external force acting directly on a body.
  • centroid: The center of a one- or two-dimensional figure, about which the sum of the displacements of all points in the figure is zero.
  • collinear forces: Concurrent forces having the same line of action, the vector sum of which is the algebraic sum of the magnitudes of the forces, acting along the same line of action.
  • components of a force: Two or more concurrent forces into which a single force may be resolved and having a net effect on a rigid body equivalent to that of the initial force. For convenience in structural analysis, there are usually the rectangular or Cartesian components of the initial force.
  • concurrent forces: Forces having lines of action intersecting at a common point, the vector sum of which can be found by applying the parallelogram law.
  • coplanar forces: Forces that operate in a single plane.
  • crushing force: Also see crushing load, crushing weight.
  • equilibrant: The force required to bring a set of concurrent forces into equilibrium, equal in magnitude but opposite in direction to the resultant of the concurrent force system and acting along the same line of action.
  • foot-pound: A unit of energy equal to the work done when the point of application of a force of one pound moves through a distance of one foot in the direction of the force. Abbr.: ft-lb.
  • force: An influence on a body producing or tending to produce a change in shape or movement.
  • force arm: The perpendicular distance from the line of action of a force to the point or line about which a moment occurs.
  • fulcrum: The support or point on which a lever turns.
  • hoop force: A force acting along a hoop line of a dome structure, perpendicular to meridional forces. Hoop forces, which restrain the out-of-plane movement of the meridional strips in the shell of a dome, are compressive in the upper zone and tensile in the lower zone.
  • inch-pound: One-twelfth of a foot-pound. Abbr.: in-lb.
  • inertia: The tendency of a body at rest to remain at rest or of a body in motion to retain its velocity along a straight line unless acted upon by an external force.
  • jacking force: The tensile force exerted temporarily by a jack in the prestressing of a concrete member.
  • law of action and reaction: The physical law that for every force acting on a body, the body exerts a force having equal magnitude and the opposite direction along the same line of action as the original force.
  • law of inertia: The physical law that a body remains at rest or in motion with a constant velocity unless an external force acts on the body.
  • lever: A rigid element that pivots about a fulcrum to exert a pressure or sustain a weight at a second point by a force applied at a third.
  • line of action: A line of indefinite length of which a force vector is a segment. A force acting on a rigid body may be regarded as acting anywhere along its line of action without altering the external effect of the force.
  • mechanical advantage: The ratio of output force to the input force applied to a mechanism.
  • mechanics: The branch of physics that deals with the effects of forces on bodies or material systems, comprised of statics and dynamics.
  • meridional force: A force acting along a meridional line of a dome structure, always compressive under full vertical loading.
  • moment: The measure of the tendency of a force to produce rotation about a given point.
  • moment arm: The perpendicular distance from the line of action of a force to the point or line about which a moment occurs. Also called force arm.
  • newton: The SI unit of force equal to the force required to accelerate a mass of one kilogram at the rate of one meter per second per second. Abbr.: N.
  • newton-meter: The SI unit of work or energy equal to the work done when the point of application of a force of one newton moves through a distance of one meter in the direction of the force: approximately 0.7375 ft-lb. Also called newton-meter. Abbr.: J.
  • Newton’s first law of motion: The physical law that a body remains at rest or in motion with a constant velocity unless an external force acts on the body. Also called law of inertia.
  • Newton’s second law of motion: The physical law that the sum of the forces acting on a body is equal to the product of the mass of the body and the acceleration produced by the force, with motion in the direction of the resultant of the forces.
  • Newton’s third law of motion: The physical law that for every force acting on a body, the body exerts a force having equal magnitude and the opposite direction along the same line of action as the original force. Also called the law of action and reaction.
  • nonconcurrent forces: Forces having lines of action that do not intersect at a common point, the vector sum of which is a single force that would cause the same translation and rotation of a body as the set of original forces.
  • parallel forces: Nonconcurrent forces having parallel lines of action.
  • parallelogram law: The proposition that the vector sum of two concurrent forces can be described by the diagonal of a parallelogram having adjacent sides which represent the two force vectors being added.
  • pascal: The SI unit of pressure equal to one newton per square meter. Abbr.: Pa.
  • pound: A unit of force equal to the weight of a one-pound mass under the acceleration of gravity. Abbr.: lb. 2. A unit of weight equal to 16 ounces and equivalent to 0.453 kg. Abbr.: lb.
  • pressure: The force exerted over a surface, measured as force per unit area.
  • reactive force: An external force generated by the action of one body on another.
  • resolution of forces: See parallelogram of forces.
  • resultant: A single vector equivalent to and producing the same effect on a body as the application of two or more given vectors.
  • rotation: The circular motion of a body about an axis.
  • statics: Force acting by balancing other forces.
  • statistically equivalent: Having the same translational and rotational effect on a body.
  • translation: The uniform motion of a body in a straight line, without rotation or angular displacement.
  • vector: A quantity possessing both magnitude and direction, represented by an arrow whose length is proportional to the magnitude and whose orientation in space represents the direction.
  • vector sum: A single vector equivalent to and producing the same effect on a body as the application of two or more given vectors. Also called resultant.
  • work: The transfer of energy produced by the motion of the point of application of a force, equal to the product of the component of the force that acts in the direction of the motion of the point of action and the distance through which the point of application moves.
  • acceleration of gravity: The acceleration of a freely falling body in the earth’s gravitational field, having an approximate value at sea level of 32 ft. (9.8 m) per second per second.
  • center of gravity: The point at which the entire weight of a body may be considered concentrated so that, if supported at this point, the body would remain in equilibrium in any position: coincident with the center of mass in a uniform gravitational field. A force whose line of action passes through the center of gravity of a body affects not only its translation equilibrium; the body remains in rotational equilibrium.
  • gravity: The central force of attraction exerted by the mass of the earth on a body near its surface.
  • specific gravity: The ratio of the density of a substance to the density of another substance taken as a standard, usually distilled water for liquids and solids, and air or hydrogen for gases.
  • grano: Used in combination to mean granitic, or of great hardness.
  • mechanical equivalent of heat: The number of units of work or energy equal to one unit of heat, as 778.2 ft-lb, which equals one Btu, or 4.1858 joules, which equals one calorie.
  • dwarf: Lacking in the required or customary height; low or short.
  • hydraulic jar: Also see hydraulic shock.
  • hydraulic shock: Also see hydraulic shock.
  • acre: A unit of land area equal to 1/640 of a square mile, 4840 square yards, 43,560 square feet, or 4047 square meters.
  • are: A metric unit of area equal to 1/100 of a hectare, 100 square meters, or 119.6 square yards. Abbr.: a.
  • area: The surface within specific boundaries. 2. A light-well sunk before windows partly or wholly below grade. 3. A quantitative measure of a plane or curved surface.
  • areola: Diminutive of area.
  • aroura: An ancient Egyptian measure of area; equivalent to 2740 square meters. Also see arura.
  • arura: An ancient Egyptian measure of area; equivalent to 2,740 square meters.
  • campo: An Italian measure of land, roughly an acre.
  • centuriation: The system of land division practiced in ancient Rome, with units large enough to contain one hundred traditional farms.
  • chien: A standard unit of floor space or bay in a Chinese dwelling.
  • chorometry: The science of measuring land.
  • density: In urban planning, the number of persons dwelling upon an acre of land, sometimes upon a square mile. 2. The mass of a substance per unit volume.
  • hectare: A metric unit of area equal to 10,000 square meters or 2.47 acres. Abbr.: ha.
  • manor: A tract of land granted by the king.
  • plot: A definitely limited piece of land, as a building plot, that is, the piece of land on which a building stands or is to be built.
  • square measure: A unit or system of units for measuring area, derived from units of linear measure.
  • topgraphy: The physically detailed description of a piece of land.
  • tsubo: A traditional Japanese unit of area; equal to 1 square ken or 3.95 square feet.
  • acaina: An ancient Greek measure of length, equal to 1215 inches (3,086 cm).
  • actus: An ancient measure of length equal to 120 pedes (Roman feet); equivalent to 116.4 feet (35.49 m).
  • akaina: Also see acaina.
  • centimeter: A metric unit of length equal to 1/100 of a meter or 0.3937 inch. The use of the centimeter is not recommended for use in construction. Abbr.: cm.
  • cubit: A linear unit of measurement used by the ancients; in ancient Egypt, equal to 20.62 in. (52.4 cm). 2. An ancient Roman measure of length equal to 17.5 in. (44.4 cm). 3. An ancient Greek measure of length equal to 18.2 in. (46.2 cm).
  • cubitus: An ancient Roman measure of length equal to 17.5 inches.
  • decempeda: A rod of equal length to 10 pedes (Roman feet); used by ancient architects and surveyors for taking measurements.
  • foot : A unit of length originally derived from the length of the human foot, divided into 12 inches and equal to 304.8 millimeters. Abbr.: ft.
  • Greek foot: An ancient Greek measure of length, equal to 12.15 inches.
  • harmonic division: Relation of successive numbers in a series, the reciprocals of which are in arithmetical progression, the numbers being proportional to the lengths of twanged cords that sound harmonious…
  • harmonic proprotion: Relation of successive numbers in a series, the reciprocals of which are in arithmetical progression, the numbers being proportional to the lengths of twanged cords that sound harmonious…
  • inch: Unit of linear measure, the twelfth part of a foot.
  • length: The extent of anything measured along its greatest dimension.
  • mete: The length in chains or feet of a boundary.
  • micrometer: The millionth part of a meter.
  • micron: The millionth part of a meter. Also called micrometer.
  • mil: A unit of length equal to 0.001 of an inch or 0.0254 mm, used in measuring the diameter of wires and the thickness of very thin sheet materials.
  • mille passus: An ancient Roman measure of length equal to 1,000 passues; equivalent to 4852.4 feet.
  • palm: An ancient Hebrew and Chaldean unit of linear measure; 4 digits = 1 palm; 3 palms = 1 span; 2 spans = 1 cubit (1′-9.888″).
  • passus: An ancient Roman measure of length; equal to 5 pedes; equivalent to 58.2 inches.
  • pedes: Plural of pes.
  • pes: An ancient Roman measure of length; a Roman foot; equal to 11.65 inches. Also see pedes.
  • plethron: A measure of length of the ancient Greeks; equivalent to 100 Greek feet… 2. A unit of area equal to the square of the above length.
  • plethrum: Also see plethron.
  • post flare: The tapering of a post; may take place just at the top or over the entire length of the post.
  • Roman foot: See pes.
  • shaku: A linear unit of measurement in traditional Japanese construction; equal to 0.994 feet.
  • yard: A unit of linear measure; 36 inches. 2. A piece of ground adjacent to and part of a residence or other building. 3. A unit of length equal to 3 feet or 36 inches, and equivalent to 0.9144 meter. Abbr.: yd.
  • mass: In architecture, term used to describe the sense of bulk, density, and weight of architectural forms. 2. A unified area of light, shade, or color that defines shape or form in general outline rather than in detail. 3. A measure of a body’s inertia, as determined by the quantity of material it contains and its weight in a field of constant gravitational acceleration. Abbr.: M.
  • measure: A unit or standard of measurement used to ascertain the dimensions, quantity, or capacity of something.
  • center-to-center: From the centerline of one element, member, or part to the centerline of the next. Also called on center.
  • o.c.: A means of indicating spacing by measuring from the center of one member to the center of the next member; 16″ o.c. and 24″ o.c. are the most commonly found joist, stud, and rafter spacings.
  • on center: A means of indicating spacing by measuring from the center of one member to the center of the next member; 16″ o.c. and 24″ o.c. are the most commonly found joist, stud, and rafter spacings.
  • plasticity index: The numerical difference between the liquid limit and the plastic limit of a soil.
  • power: The product of potential difference and current in a direct-current circuit. In an alternating current circuit, power is equal to the product of the effective voltage, the effective current, and the cosine of the phase angle between current and voltage. 2. The amount of work done or energy transferred per unit of time, usually expressed in watts or horsepower.
  • eurythmy: Harmony, orderliness, and elegance of proportions.
  • geometrical proportion: That theory of proportion in architecture which assumes the existence of a geometrical basis or system by which proportions may be determined and upon which the parts of the building may be put in the right place for producing the best effect.
  • harmonic proportions: Classical Greek theories, repeated in the Renaissance especially by Alberti and Palladio, relating the proportions of music to those of architectural design.
  • human scale: The size or proportion of a building element or space, or an article of furniture, relative to the structural or functional dimensions of the human body.
  • mechanical scale: The size or proportion of something relative to an accepted standard of measurement.
  • module: The measurement that architects use to determine the proportions of a structure, for example, the diameter of a column. 2. Any in a series of standardized, frequently interchangeable components used in assembling units of differing size, complexity, or function.
  • Modulor: A system of proportions to correspond with portions of a human body.
  • part: Also see minute.
  • proportion: The comparative, proper, or harmonious relation of one part to another or to the whole with respect to magnitude, quantity, or degree. 2. The equality between two ratios in which the first of the four terms divided by the second equals the third divided by the fourth.
  • ratio: Relation in magnitude, quantity, or degree between two or more similar things.
  • scale: A measuring strip as an aid in proportional drafting. 2. In architecture, harmonious relationship of parts to one another and to the human figure. 3. A proportion determining the relationship of a representation to that which it represents. 4. An oxide occurring in a scaly form on the surface of metal when brought to a high temperature. 5. A certain proportionate size, extent, or degree, usually judged in relation to some standard or point of reference. 6. A system or ordered marks laid down at known intervals and used as a standard reference in measuring.
  • tolerance: Acceptable variation from a standard size.
  • visual scale: The size or proportion a building element appears to have relative to other elements or components of known or assumed size.
  • Fibonacci sequence: The unending sequence of numbers, where the first two terms are 1 and 1, and each succeeding term is the sum of the two immediately preceding.
  • Fibonacci series: The unending sequence of numbers, where the first two terms are 1 and 1, and each succeeding term is the sum of the two immediately preceding. Also called Fibonacci sequence.
  • harmonic progression: A sequence of numbers the reciprocals of which form an arithmetic progression.
  • harmonic series: A sequence of numbers the reciprocals of which form an arithmetic progression.
  • shearing load: Also see shearing load.
  • shearing resistance: The property of a soil that enables its particles to resist displacement with respect to one another when an external force is applied, due largely to the combined effects of cohesion and internal friction.
  • shearing strength: The property of a soil that enables its particles to resist displacement with respect to one another when an external force is applied, due largely to the combined effects of cohesion and internal friction. Also called shearing resistance.
  • shearing weight: That kind of breaking weight or force which acts by shearing; i.e. by pushing one portion of a member or material past the adjoining part, as by a pair of shears.
  • oversize: Large in size or scale in relation to an adjacent element.
  • size: Measurement in extend. 2. A liquid coating composition, usually transparent, for sealing a porous surface preparatory to application of finishing coats.
  • sizing: The same as size. 2. The application of such sizing.
  • gyration: A quantity entering into the formulas for the strength of columns. It is equal to the moment of inertia of a surface divided by the area.
  • modulus: Unit of measure used in describing the strength of materials.
  • residual stress: Microscopic stress in a metal resulting from nonuniform thermal changes, plastic deformation, or other causes aside from external forces or applications of heat.
  • stress relieving: The tempering of a metal at a temperature high enough to relieve residual stresses, followed by slow, uniform cooling.
  • stress reversal: A change in the force of a truss member from tension to compression or vice versa caused by a change in the loading pattern.
  • International System of Units: An internationally accepted system of coherent physical units, using the meter, kilogram, second, ampere, kelven, and candela as the basic units of the fundamental quantities of length, mass, time, electric current, temperature, and luminous intensity.
  • metric system: A decimal system of weights and measures, adopted first in France but now widespread and universally used in science.
  • SI unit: One of the basic units of the International System of Units.
  • absolute scale: A temperature scale based on absolute zero with scale units equal in magnitude to centigrade degrees.
  • absolute temperature: Temperature as measured on an absolute scale.
  • absolute zero: The hypothetical lowest limit of physical temperature characterized by complete absence of heat, equal to -273.16 degree C or -459.67 degree F.
  • British thermal unit: The quantity of heat required to raise the temperature of one pound (0.4 kg) of water 1 degree F. Abbr: Btu.
  • calorie: A unit of heat equal to the quantity of heat required to raise the temperature of one gram of water 1 degree C at a pressure of one atmosphere, equivalent to 4,186 joules. Abbr.: cal. Also called gram calorie, small calorie.
  • Celsius scale: A temperature scale divided into 100 degrees, in which 0 degree C represents the freezing point and 100 degree C the boiling point of water under standard atmospheric pressure. Also called Centigrade scale.
  • Centigrade scale: A temperature scale divided into 100 degrees, in which 0 degree C represents the freezing point and 100 degree C the boiling point of water under standard atmospheric pressure.
  • contraction: Shrinkage in dimensions through lowering of temperature; applied usually to metals.
  • dew point: The temperature at which air becomes oversaturated with moisture and the moisture condenses.
  • effective temperature: An experimentally determined scale of temperature, independent of dry- or wet-bulb recordings, measuring bodily comfort or discomfort in all combinations of temperature and humidity.
  • enthalpy: A measure of the total heat contained in a substance, equal to the internal energy of the substance plus the product of its volume and pressure. The enthalpy of air is equal to the sensible heat of the air and the water vapor present in the air plus the latent heat of the water vapor, expressed in Btu per pound (kilojoules per kilogram) of dry air. Also called heat content.
  • Fahrenheit scale: A temperature scale in which 32 degrees F represents the freezing point and 212 degrees F the boiling point of water under standard atmospheric pressure.
  • frost line: The maximum depth to which winter frost penetrates the ground in a given locality.
  • gram calorie: A unit of heat equal to the quantity of heat required to raise the temperature of one gram of water 1 degree C at a pressure of one atmosphere, equivalent to 4,186 joules. Abbr.: cal.
  • heat content: A measure of the total heat contained in a substance, equal to the internal energy of the substance plus the product of its volume and pressure. The enthalpy of air is equal to the sensible heat of the air and the water vapor present in the air plus the latent heat of the water vapor, expressed in Btu per pound (kilojoules per kilogram) of dry air.
  • kelvin: The base SI unit of temperature equal to 1/273.16 of the triple point of water. Symbol: K.
  • Kelvin scale: An absolute scale of temperature having a zero point of -273.16 degree C.
  • kilocalorie: A unit of heat equal to the quantity of heat required to raise the temperature of one kilogram of water 1 degree C at a pressure of one atmosphere, equivalent to 1000 small calories. Abbr.: Cal. Also called kilogram calorie, large calorie.
  • kilogram calorie: A unit of heat equal to the quantity of heat required to raise the temperature of one kilogram of water 1 degree C at a pressure of one atmosphere, equivalent to 1000 small calories. Abbr.: Cal.
  • large calorie: A unit of heat equal to the quantity of heat required to raise the temperature of one kilogram of water 1 degree C at a pressure of one atmosphere, equivalent to 1000 small calories. Abbr.: Cal.
  • mean radiant temperature: The sum of the temperatures of the surrounding walls, floor, and ceiling of a room, weighted according to the solid angle subtended by each at the point of measurement. Mean radiant temperature is important to thermal comfort since the human body receives radiant heat from or loses heat by radiation to the surrounding surfaces if their mean radiant temperature is significantly higher or lower than the air temperature.
  • small calorie: A unit of heat equal to the quantity of heat required to raise the temperature of one gram of water 1 degree C at a pressure of one atmosphere, equivalent to 4,186 joules. Abbr.: cal.
  • unit: Also see British thermal unit.
  • wet-bulb temperature: The temperature of a thoroughly wet body of air in motion. 2. The temperature recorded by the wet-bulb thermometer in a psychrometer.
  • gage: Any of various standards for designating the thickness or diameter of a thin object, as the thickness of sheet metal or the diameter of a wire or screw
  • Boyle’s law: The principle that, at relatively low pressures and a fixed temperature, the pressure of a confined ideal gas varies inversely with its volume.
  • cubage: The measurement of enclosed volume.
  • cubic measure: A unit or system of units for measuring volume or capacity, derived from units of linear measure.
  • fluid ounce: A unit of liquid capacity equal to 1.805 cubic inches or 29.5573 milliliters. Abbr.: fl. oz.
  • gallon: A unit of liquid capacity equal to 4 quarts, 231 cubic inches, or 3.875 liters. Abbr.: gal.
  • in the clear: Describing measurement of a space unobstructed, as between floor and beam soffit rather than between floor and ceiling proper.
  • in the round: Also see in the round.
  • liter: A metric unit of capacity equal to 1/1000 of a cubic meter or 61.02 cubic inches. Abbr.: L.
  • milliliter: A metric unit of capacity equal to 1/1000 of a liter or 0.0162 cubic inch. Abbr.: ml.
  • pint: A unit of liquid capacity equal to 16 fluid ounces, 28.875 cubic inches, or 0.473 liter. Abbr.: pt.
  • quart: A unit of liquid capacity equal to 2 pints, 57.75 cubic inches, or 0.946 liter. Abbr.: qt.
  • specific volume: The reciprocal of density, equal to volume per unit mass.
  • conversion table: A tabular arrangement of the equivalent values of the weight or measure units of different systems.
  • gram: A metric unit of mass equal to 1/1000 of a kilogram or 0.035 ounce. Abbr.: g.
  • kilogram: A unit of force and weight equal to the weight of a kilogram mass under the acceleration of gravity. Abbr.: kg. 2. The base SI unit of mass, equal to the mass of a platinum-iridium cylinder kept at the International Bureau of Weights and Measures near Paris; equivalent to 2.205 avoridupois pounds.
  • kip: A unit of weight equal to 1000 pounds or 453.6 kg.
  • metric ton: A unit of mass equal to 1,000 kilograms and equivalent to 2,204.62 avoirdupois pounds. Also called tonne. Abbr.: m.t.
  • short ton: A unit of weight equal to 2,000 pounds or 0.907 metric ton.
  • ton: A unit of weight equal to 2,000 pounds or 0.907 metric ton. Also called short ton.
  • tonne: A unit of mass equal to 1,000 kilograms and equivalent to 2,204.62 avoirdupois pounds. Abbr.: m.t.
  • weight: The force of gravity acting vertically, as in the case of a pillar or horizontal lintel, or diagonally, as long the line of a rafter. 2. The gravitational force exerted by the earth on a body, equal to the mass of the body times the local acceleration of gravity.
  • horsepower: Unit of the rate of work – 33,000 pounds lifted one foot in one minute; applied to a boiler, the rating indicates the amount and pressure of steam that will drive an engine to perform at that rate; applied to an electric motor, a horsepower requires 745,941 watts. 2. A unit of power equal to 550 foot-pounds per second or 745.7 watts. Abbr.: hp.

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