Architecture / Design / Landscape

  • arbor: A framework, sometimes partly filled in with lattice, for the support of vines.
  • arbour: A framework, sometimes partly filled in with lattice, for the support of vines.
  • berceau: Arbour of trellises covered with plants. 2. Trees trained in espalier fashion, with branches arched to form an arbor.
  • shade arbor: A projecting horizontal member to provide protection from the sun to the area below.
  • trelliage: A frame supporting open latticework, used as a screen or a support for growing vines or plants.
  • trellis: A frame supporting open latticework, used as a screen or a support for growing vines or plants.
  • tunnel-arbour: Arbour elongated to form a tunnel covered with climbing-plans over a walkway, similar to a pagoda.
  • jardinet: Large ornamental circular basin for growing plants, e.g. on a terrace.
  • campus: Grounds of a college or university, or a separate, discrete part of such an institution. 2. Large expanse of parkland containing a series of buildings used for academic purposes. 3. Arrangement of such buildings around a large open grassed area
  • grot: Properly, a cave; in architecture, a piece of rockwork in which a cave is simulated.
  • grotto: A natural or artificial cave, often decorated with shells or stones and incorporating waterfalls or fountains.
  • alatoria: A piazza, corridor, or covered walk. 2. The flank of a building.
  • alatorium: A piazza, corridor, or covered walk. 2. The flank of a building.
  • alorium: Also see alatoria.
  • breezeway: A roofed passage open at the sides between separate buildings, such as a house and a garage.
  • deambulacrum: In Roman architecture, a walk or passage, usually covered.
  • decambulatio: In Roman architecture, a walk or passage, usually covered.
  • ginnell: In local British usage, a passage between two buildings or the like.
  • gitty: See ginnell.
  • hypodromus: In ancient Rome, a shady or covered walk or ambulatory.
  • jitty: See ginnell.
  • lang: In traditional Chinese architecture, a covered walkway which connects buildings; may be entirely enclosed or may be open; some are lean-tos against a building, as in a garden.
  • levecel: An appentice.
  • vennel: See ginnell.
  • conceit: Agreeable fabrique in a garden, usually whimsical, such as a bridge not spanning anything but there purely for ornament.
  • folly: A whimsical or extravagant structure built to serve as a conversation piece, lend interest to a view, or commemorate a person or event.
  • jawab: A false building or structure, set in a complex of other structures, which is constructed solely to achieve a desired balance or proportions.
  • flagstaff: A pole to which a flag is secured, and from which it floats…
  • catena d’acqua: Artificial cascade with a series of steps.
  • academy: Garden of Akademos near Athens where Plato taught. 2. Institution of higher learning for the arts and sciences. 3. Place of training in skill, e.g. riding. 4. Society/institution for the promotion of art, science, etc.
  • allotment: Found throughout Europe and referred to in North America as a ‘community garden’, it is a designated area of land, not attached to a house, providing facilities for people to grow produce, or to develop small pleasure-gardens. Allotments were recognized (1887 with subsequent legislation) in English law, which required local authorities to provide them where need demanded.0
  • Alpine garden: An Alpine house is a garden-building with ventilation but no heating, suitable for the cultivation of Alpine species: it may also refer to a Swiss cottage or chalet.
  • American garden: Garden planted with species from North America. In the 18th c. seeds were collected and sent to subscribers in England: these included magnolias, kalmias, and rhododendrons, which flourished in shady dells and peaty soils…
  • anglo-choinois: French term for a type of irregular informal landscape-garden supposedly evolved from Chinese prototypes and embellished with buildings in the Chinese Taste popularized by Chambers.
  • arboretum: An informally arranged garden, usually on a large scale, where trees are grown for display, educational, or scientific purposes.
  • Artinatural: Style lying between the formal and informal, defined by Batty Langley in his Practical Geometry and New Principles of Gardening as ‘regular irregularity’: in landscape-gardens this signified a symmetrical geometry overlaid by asymmetrical elements such as serpentine paths.
  • Arts-and-Crafts gardening: There was no fixed approach to style in Arts-and-Crafts garden-design, although ordered geometry might co-exist with themes drawn from informal cottage-gardens…
  • bāgh: Enclosed garden of Persian origin. A chahar bāgh or chār-bāgh is a garden subdivided into four parts by canals and paths, e.g. the Paradise-garden of the Taj Mahal at Agra.
  • Baroque garden: Style of garden based on geometrical and symmetrical layouts, often incorporating broad, straight axes leading into the distance (usually crossed by subsidiary axes)…
  • battle-garden: Of all garden-types, battle-gardens must be the most unfamiliar: they represented battle-formations, battlefield topography, or military architecture and engineering
  • bedding-out: Art, dating from the 1830s, of planting flowers (especially annuals) in garden beds, having raised them from seeds or cuttings. It facilitates the changing of floral displays two or three times each year in the same beds. 2. Bedding schemes, often featuring colorful symmetrical patterns, can be seen in public parts, on road roundabouts, etc.
  • bog-garden: Bog (from the Irish bogach) is a morass, moss, or wet, spongy ground, consisting of decaying vegetable matter, so a bog-garden is one created where the soil is permanently saturated, but where the water does not rise above the surface to form pools. Soil in such conditions is peaty and acidic, and plants are permitted to grow and naturally reproduce…
  • borrowed landscape: Garden-composition drawing countryside into the prospect, or incorporating a distant feature (e.g. a hill or steeple)…
  • boschetto: Plantation in a garden, park, etc., of underwood and small trees. Thicket or grove of the same species cut through with walks, also called a wilderness, intended to give shade and pleasure, not to be confused with an uncultivated wasteland…
  • bosket: A grove; a thicket or small grouping of trees in a garden, park, etc.
  • bosquet: A small clump of trees.
  • botanic garden: Collection of plants having several purposes: botanic/horticultural education; conservation; and nurture of indigenous and foreign specimens…
  • bower: A garden shelter made of twisted vines or tree branches; an attractive retreat or dwelling place; an arbor.
  • bowling alley: Originally an alley in a garden, enclosed by hedges or shrubbery, in which the game of bowls was played; or a bowling green, if long and narrow. 2. In the U.S., a covered place and floor for the playing of the gamed called variously Tenpins, Ninepins, Bowling…
  • chahar bāgh: From the Persian, meaning ‘four gardens’, it is a garden-type divided into four parts by means of walks and water-courses intersecting in the center, so is a formal geometrical design symbolizing both the organization of territory and the idea of the Celestial Gardens of Paradise. Such gardens were associated with Mughal palaces and mausolea.
  • charbāgh: From the Persian, meaning ‘four gardens’, it is a garden-type divided into four parts by means of walks and water-courses intersecting in the center, so is a formal geometrical design symbolizing both the organization of territory and the idea of the Celestial Gardens of Paradise. Such gardens were associated with Mughal palaces and mausolea.
  • Chinese garden-design: From the time it was first impinged on European sensibilities in the 17th c., it profoundly influenced developments in the West.
  • Classical Chinese gardens: In contrast to the buildings, Chinese gardens are a notable exception which tends to be asymmetrical. The principle underlying the garden’s composition is to create enduring flow.
  • coastal garden: Garden by the sea requiring protection (provided by belts of shrubs) for plants to take hold and thrive…
  • college garden: Unlike many European universities, English college foundations at Oxford and Cambridge were established in what were small hamlets distant from the capital, and so had gardens, and even extensive meadows attached to them…
  • curtilage: The ground adjacent to a dwelling and appertaining to it, as a yard, garden, or court.
  • cut-work: Flower beds cut into elaborate patterns outlined in turf, separated by narrow sanded paths in a parterre, fashionable in 17th c., and sometimes edged with box.
  • desert: An 18th century landscape designed to look wild, forsaken, and uncultivated, with ruined buildings giving the impression of having been abandoned, and conducive to melancholy…
  • dug work: Patterns of late-17th and early-18th c. flower beds.
  • Dutch garden: Adapted from an influenced by French formal gardens, Dutch manifestations were flat, compact, enclosed, with emphases on canals, raised beds, hedges, topiary, lead statuary, flowering bulbs, and shrubs…
  • Dutch Wave: See new perennials.
  • Egyptian garden: Ancient Egypt was the source of some of the oldest illustrations of gardens, going back to the third millennium BC…
  • English garden: Same as jardin anglais; hardly used in English except as a translation of the French, or by way of deliberate contrast with the formal garden
  • entrelac: In landscape-design, an interlacing band found in knot- and ornamental-gardens.
  • formal garden: A garden whose plantings, walks, pools, fountains, etc., follow a definite, recognizable plan, frequently symmetrical, emphasizing geometrical forms.
  • formal gardening: The art and practice of landscape architecture when applied to designs of a regular and symmetrical character; that is, with little reference to natural dispositions, but rather on a geometrical plan, with straight walks, clipped hedges, carefully arranged grouping of trees, and comparatively a large amount of architectural adornment in the way of parapets, terraces, pedestals, and the like.
  • French garden: Reaching its apogee (17th c. and early-18th c.), it was characterized by symmetry and regular geometry…
  • garden: A place where plants and trees are grown outside. This can be an open space or one enclosed by fencing, water, or berms. Styles of gardens are as strict and deliberate as styles of buildings.
  • Garden of Allusions: Garden consciously designed and embellished with many and varied fabriques intended to imply covert references, perhaps to trigger thoughts in visitors walking through it about architecture, civilizations, culture, history, ideas, personalities, or even a journey through Life itself…
  • Gardenesque: Design-style identified by Loudon as going further than Repton in improving on Nature and displaying the art of a garden: it is a style of laying out a garden, contrasted with the Picturesque or with rigid geometries of the Baroque… 2. Ornament or architecture suited to, or which enhances, a garden.
  • gardening: The care of gardens and the cultivation of plants therein; especially, when used without qualification, the care of ornamental plants, flowers, flowering shrubs, and the like…
  • giardino segreto: See hurtus conclusus.
  • giochi d’acqu: Italian for ‘water-games’ or ‘-jokes’, they were features of Italian-Renaissance gardens, triggered by unsuspecting visitors or set in motion by concealed servants, often spraying perambulators. Some involved water-powered automata which emitted noises or music as well as water-jets…
  • goose-foot: See patte d’oie.
  • hanging garden: One supported on vaults or arches and carried high above the streets of a town. Those of Babylon were of very great size, but nothing is known of their construction nor of the way in which the soil was maintained in proper condition.
  • hanging gardens: Gardens planted in a series of stepped hillside terraces. The paradigm, was the Hanging Gardens of Babylon, although it appears there were exemplars at Nineveh laid out under the Assyrian Sennacherib constructed on an artificial hill and featuring running water
  • herber: Medieval pleasure-ground. 2. Arbour.
  • herb-garden: Garden for growing herbs for culinary, medicinal, or other purposes, usual in monasteries. 2. 20th century ornamental garden-feature…
  • hippodromus: A plot of ground in a Roman garden or villa, planted with trees and laid out into a variety of avenues designed for equestrian exercises. 2. A hippodrome.
  • hortus: A pleasure garden or pleasure ground of the ancients, similar in style and arrangement to the garden of a modern Italian villa. 2. Any type of garden in ancient Rome.
  • hortus conclusus: Enclosed, inviolate, or secret garden, often within a bigger garden, associated with the Garden of Eden, but also an attribute of the Virgin of Mary, and furnished with walks, arbors, and turfed seats. Medieval Mary Gardens were surrounded by hedges, wattle-fences, or walls, and had raised beds planted with scented flowers and herbs: the term herber was often used synonymously. Some such gardens were ecclesiastical, others were secular, and were used for contemplation and enjoyment.
  • incident: Garden-feature (e.g. fabrique) adding interest on a garden-circuit.
  • Islamic garden: Found in Asia, the Middle East, North Africa, Spain, and Turkey, albeit with regional variations, the constants were geometrical layouts, the presence of water, shade, quiet enclosure, and a basis in religion, the model originating in Persia…
  • Italian garden: A formal garden of character imitated from, or suggested by, the villa gardens of the 16th and 17th centuries in and near the greater Italian cities.
  • Jacobean Mannerist garden: Until 1603, when James VI of Scotland ascended to the Throne as King of England, Scotland, and Ireland, England had been to some extent isolated from artistic developments on the Continent during the reign of Elizabeth I. With the ascension of the Stuarts, however, contacts were renewed with Italian art… The inspiration for the Mannerist fountain-and-grotto mania which gripped Jacobean England was the celebrated garden of Pratolino, outside Florence, filtered through French gardens such as those at Fontainebleau and St Germain-en-Laye…
  • Japanese garden-design: Of volcanic origins, the Japanese archipelago was blessed with a wide range of flora. The inhabitants early acquired acute sensitivities to natural sites, creating gardens in which rigid geometries were avoided and stylization of features was evident…
  • jardin: A garden.
  • jardin anglais: Literally, an English garden; the term used in French for a piece of ground laid out in an ornamental way with some supposed imitation of natural scenery, and with winding, rather than straight, paths, and the like.
  • jardin anglo-chinois: French term for the informal type of natural garden.
  • jardin chinois: Literally, a Chinese garden; a piece of ground laid out in an ornamental fashion with what passed in the 18th century for Chinese taste, with trees clipped in odd fashion and little bridges crossing narrow canals.
  • jardinière: Ornamental receptacle for growing flowers indoors or on balconies, window-cills, etc. See container.
  • jie jing: Chinese term meaning ‘borrowed views’, it refers to the inclusion of background natural landscape outside a garden or courtyard into the composition. Called shakkei in Japanese, it is used to enhance small urban gardens.
  • kitchen-garden: Garden in which fruit and vegetables are grown. Of great antiquity, kitchen-gardens have existed as long as civilization: ideally, they should be in warm, sheltered enclosures, laid out in grid-like patterns, and capable of being easily irrigated, so often incorporated central pools of wells, water channels, etc…
  • knot-garden: Garden containing intricate knotlike patterns of low-growing hedges of box, rosemary, thyme, etc., common in 16th and 17th c., with spaces between hedges filled with flowers, colored gravels, or herbs of different colors to the varieties used in the hedges…
  • landscape-garden: Landscape-gardening is defined as the art of laying out grounds to create the effect of natural scenery, hence landscape-gardener/landscape-garden. A landscape-garden could take the form of a park, often inspired by paintings of Classical landscapes…
  • landscaping: Landscaping is nature brought up to the edges of a building. It is trees, flowers, shrubs, pathways and ponds – everything that is done to shape the earth into a garden.
  • Mannerist garden: Style of garden evolved between the Renaissance and Baroque periods, created in Italy during a time of anxiety and change, characterized by a growing importance of architectural (e.g. grottoes, etc.) and water features (e.g. cascades and jokes), combined with allusion, novelty, and surprise…
  • military garden: Garden suggesting fortification, dispositions of armies, etc. Vauban and other military-engineers designed gardens incorporating bastions, counter-scarps, ramparts, scarps, etc…
  • miniature garden: Miniature landscape with dwarf trees, small stones representing rocks, etc., called bonsai in Japanese and shanshui penjing in Chinese, created in containers (usually shallow trays).
  • minimalist garden: Characterized by clean lines, pure form, and a strong sense of place, it employs imaginative ecologically aware planting and sparing use of materials to create tranquil retreats, often quite small (perhaps a spatial extension to the home), sometimes in courtyards, on roofs, and occasionally featuring water. It is not uninfluenced by Chinese and Japanese gardens…
  • Modernist garden: As with Modernism in architecture, 20th c. Modernist landscape architects rejected past styles, though, like architects, often claimed affinities with past masters when it suited them (usually on flimsy grounds)…
  • monastery garden: During the Middle Ages areas within or adjacent to monastery precincts were cultivated for growing fruit, herbs, and vegetables (not only for culinary/medical purposes, but to provide commodities for sale)…
  • monastic garden: During the Middle Ages areas within or adjacent to monastery precincts were cultivated for growing fruit, herbs, and vegetables (not only for culinary/medical purposes, but to provide commodities for sale)…
  • Mughal garden: Garden associated with Mughal rule in India (1526-1857). Aware of their Central Asian origins, the Mughals always bore in mind the necessity of harnessing mountain-springs to bring life to arid, rugged lands, and to create delightful, ordered, enclosed, formal gardens featuring water, fruit trees, and flowering plants…
  • natural garden: Many contemporary gardeners are concerned with natural processes, environmental sustainability, and landscapes that look unforced. The search for a ‘natural garden’ has embraced differing aesthetics at different times and places, but has roots in the notion of Arcadia…
  • New Perennials: Style of planting using hardy grasses, developed by Dutch landscape-gardeners from pioneering work by German plant-breeders…
  • patte d’oie: Common in French formal gardens, where three, four, or five straight paths radiated out from a central point in a park or garden, so called from its resemblance to a goose’s foot. It may have originated in town-planning schemes where roads joined in a space, e.g. Piazza del Pòpolo.
  • philosopher’s garden: Ancient-Greek open-air discussions often occurred in gardens associated with gymnasia… the idea was revived during the Renaissance
  • physic-garden: Garden for the study and cultivation of medicinal plants…
  • physick-garden: Garden for the study and cultivation of medicinal plants…
  • pinetum: Plantation of conifers of various species, for scientific or ornamental purposes.
  • planter box: A box attached to a building and filled with soil for plants to grow within.
  • plate-bande: Border of a parterre de broderie, either a planted strip of soil edged with box, or a double-strip, one of sand and the other planted (e.g. Het Loo, The Netherlands).
  • pleasance: Anciently a garden or part of a garden intended for ornament and for enjoyment.
  • pleasaunce: Secluded part of a landscape-garden laid out with lawns, shady walks, trees, and shrubs, as well as architectural elements such as statues on pedestals, urns, arches, fountains, pools, gazebos and seats.
  • pleasure-garden: Any garden or pleasure-ground for relaxation, etc., distinct from a vegetable-garden, kitchen-garden, or orchard. 2. Garden run as a commercial enterprise from the Restoration (1660) until the mid-19th c. in London…
  • Portugese garden: Influenced by Roman, Moorish, and medieval garden-design, Portugal’s eclectic blend of foreign influences, combined with a climate favorable to the cultivation of gardens, led to some remarkably beautiful creations…
  • potager: Kitchen-garden, aka kail-yaird in Scotland. French potagers include the formal example, Villandry, with origins in monastery-gardens…
  • privy garden: Private garden for use by its owner. A good example was that at Hampton Court Palace, a formal geometrical layout embellished with an array of sundials and standards…
  • rain garden: A rain garden is a planted depression that allows rainwater runoff from impervious urban areas like roofs, driveways, walkways, parking lots, and compacted lawn areas the opportunity to be absorbed.
  • Renaissance garden: Originating in Italy, it was prompted first by Brunelleschi’s concept of linear perspective, creating a revolution in garden-design with vistas, avenues, etc…
  • rill: Small channeled stream in a garden used ornamentally, for irrigation, or to link water-features…
  • Rococo garden: An 18th century style of garden suggesting a frivolous, artificial, light-hearted aesthetic…
  • Roman garden: Information occurs in literature, inscriptions, Roman paintings, and archaeological evidence from Pompeii, Herculaneum, and individual sites throughout the former empire. Gardens included courts surrounded by peristyles, embellished with planting (often in containers), as part of inward-looking town-houses: the atrium (see cavaedium) was also laid out with fruit trees and vines or treated formally, with ornamental planting, statuary, impluvium, and fountains…
  • Romantic garden: Landscape-garden influenced by the philosophical principles/aesthetic ideals of Romanticism in Europe and America in the late 18th and for much of 19th c. The ‘English’, ‘naturalisticgarden, with fabriques (notably ruins), informed many Romantic gardens. See landscape-garden; picturesque.
  • roof garden: A garden formed upon a flat roof, especially prepared for the purpose by arranging thereon growing plants and shrubbery in pots, tubs, and boxes, and occasionally by accumulating thereon sufficient soil to sustain grass and other small vegetation; specifically, a place of public entertainment in the open air upon a roof, provided with facilities for vaudeville performances, partly sheltered by awnings and adorned with a few ornamental plants.
  • roof-garden: Plants within buildings (e.g. in courts or containers) have been features of architecture since Antiquity…
  • scholar’s garden: Space designed to nourish the heart, incite poetic reverie, and provide a place of peaceful retreat: a precious terrain feeding the creative imagination, according to 17th c. Chinese texts. The hermit-like aesthetic life led by the scholar had a profound impact on Chinese garden-design. See Ji Cheng; philosopher’s garden; sanctuary.
  • sculpture-garden: Garden where sculpture either ornaments or serves a primary role…
  • scutilagium: A small close or enclosure, as a garden.
  • shang lin yuan: A royal garden within the capital of an ancient Chinese state; opened to the public once a year.
  • shanshui penjing: Art of creating miniature landscapes in shallow containers. See bonsai; miniature garden.
  • Sharawadgi: First used by Sir William Temple in his Upon the Gardens of Epicurus (1685) to describe the Chinese way of planting in an apparently haphazard manner ‘without any Order of Disposition of Parts’… 2. Sharwadgi was used (somewhat pretentiously) in town-planning circles in the 1940s to describe irregular, asymmetrical, informal designs.
  • Sharawaggi: First used by Sir William Temple in his Upon the Gardens of Epicurus (1685) to describe the Chinese way of planting in an apparently haphazard manner ‘without any Order of Disposition of Parts’… 2. Sharwadgi was used (somewhat pretentiously) in town-planning circles in the 1940s to describe irregular, asymmetrical, informal designs.
  • shrubbery: Group of low bushes or other plants (e.g. flowers) designed for aesthetic display, softening transitions, defining winding paths, acting as screens, or presenting punctuations of color in a landscape that would otherwise be green or brown. In 19th c. with more plant-varieties being introduced, the achievement of many colorful effects became possible.
  • Spanish garden-design: Descriptions by Pliny the Elder, who lived in what is now Spain, tell us much about Roman gardens, and major archaeological remains have provided information about Roman exemplars. Roman systems of irrigation largely survived to be preserved and extended by the Muslims, whose garden-culture made a profound impact on the Iberian peninsula…
  • stone lantern: An outdoor lantern, usually Japanese, used as a permanent garden ornament.
  • stroll garden: A garden designed to be viewed from a footpath, which usually proceeds from one of a series of vantage points to another.
  • stroll-garden: Japanese garden developed in the Edo period (1603-1868): extensive, it featured a central pond around which were paths constructed to afford the perambulator carefully designed varied scenes alluding to famous landscapes, poetry, Confucian thought, and even villages. Sounds made by contact of shoes with pebbles on paths, wind through bamboo, and running water were important.
  • sunken garden: A garden, sometimes geometrically planned, at a level below prevailing grade, or surrounded by raised terraces.
  • Swiss garden: Garden with real or allusive Swiss elements (buildings, landscape, planting)… 2. Swiss public parks, gardens, and botanic gardens attached to the universities of Geneva (1818), Zurich (!834), and Bern (1860) were renowned for their ‘neatness’ in the 19th c., while the country’s close turf carpet and the grandeur of its mountains rendered all Switzerland a garden in the eyes of travellers…
  • tea garden: A Japanese garden next to a teahouse, usually small and serene. 2. An outdoor tearoom in a public garden, serving refreshments, including tea.
  • tea-garden: Connected with Japanese rituals in Zen Buddhism from the 15th c., the setting for the tea-ceremony… 2. Fashionable garden in Victorian times where ladies might take tea and meet friends…
  • therapeutic garden: One designed to address physical, psychological, and spiritual needs of designated users, usually attached to a hospital, etc.
  • thicket: Group of trees planted close together; a wilderness. See bosket; clump; coppice; grove.
  • town garden: Small garden to the rear of houses, regularly laid out, with trees, shrubs, and paths, evidence of which in 18th c. Bath, London, etc., can be found. 2. Garden surrounded by railings, etc., in 18th c. squares, e.g. London. 3. Front and rear gardens of detached or semi-detached suburban houses, designs of which survive in Loudon’s publications. They became common with the Garden-City movement, seen as important for family life. Domestic gardens are perceived as extensions to interior living.
  • umbrello: Garden-fabrique, a small structure protecting a seat.
  • vertugadin: Grassed bank, crescent-shaped on plan, with pointed ends, in a garden.
  • vista garden: Garden with deliberately designed views, sometimes framed by trees, as in an allée, occasionally employing tricks of perspective, and often involving eyecatchers revealed in perambulations.
  • wall garden: A garden of plants set in the joints of a stone wall, where soil pockets have previously been arranged.
  • water-garden: From Antiquity, and in many cultures, water has played an essential part in gardens, not only for practical purposes of irrigation, but for aesthetic reasons… A water-garden, however, is either part of a garden in which water (in the form of canals, cascades, fountains, pools, etc.) plays a prominent role, often with water-loving plants, or a large garden in which water is dominant
  • wild garden: Garden where hardy woodland/meadow plants grow in a supposedly ‘natural’ way…
  • wilderness: In ornamental gardening, of the formal sort, a part of the grounds less regular in treatment, and supposed to have some of the wildness of nature.
  • woodland garden: The 19th century garden formed in acidic woodland soils, featuring non-native species, e.g. hydrangeas, rhododendrons, etc., augmented in the late 19th-early 20th c. by the introduction of further imported varieties from Asia, etc…
  • Zen garden-design: Term coined in the West which seems to refer to many types of Eastern-inspired gardens supposedly influenced by Zen Buddhism, esp. Japanese garden-design. Examples would include the tea-garden, the stroll-garden, and sundry sand- and stone-gardens which have had such an impact on Western gardens. Chief characteristics included understatement, economy of means, borrowed landscapes, rock-placings, water, representations by means of rock-work of mountains, and responses to drawings of landscapes. Zen Buddhism focuses on meditation rather than prayer as a means towards Enlightenment, and so Zen garden-design evolved to provide suitable environments conducive to this activity, providing peace, beauty, and no distractions.
  • zoological garden: Open-air enclosed area for keeping, displaying, studying, and breeding animals. The type is ancient, for animals were kept in gardens in Ancient Egypt, Mesopotamia, and China for purposes of providing game for hunting, food, and impressing visitors. Menageries to show off species discovered in explorations were developed from Renaissance times, but the animals were caged rather than allowed the freedom of open-air habitats, and in the 18th c. royal menageries were opened to the public… In the 20th c., with concerns about conservation and improved knowledge about animals’ welfare, natural habitats were created, so the modern zoo promotes horticulture to provide them.
  • pieh kuan: A structure in an elaborate Chinese garden which by its design attracts special attention; usually served as the studio for the emperor or a famous scholar.
  • lymphaea: A type of artificial grotto.
  • entourage: Environment. The grounds immediately surrounding a building.
  • glebe land: Also see glebe.
  • premises: A building and its grounds.
  • bosco: Dense wood with walks and clearings within it, close to the spirit of the formal wilderness. The sacro bosco contained groves suggesting those inhabited by deities in Antiquity, and was associated with a perilous journey, so carved figures and various structures were set among the trees, as at Bomarzo, near Viterbo. 2. Wood or grove, often a place of shade and retreat surrounded by evergreens. Boschetto is a diminutive of bosco.
  • grove: Group of trees (naturally occurring or planted), providing shade or wind-breaks, or forming avenues or walks…
  • charmille: Arbour, bower, or tall clipped hornbeam hedge.
  • hedge: A barrier of shrubs or small trees, often clipped and usually interlaced.
  • pleach: To interlace or intertwine, e.g. branches of young trees to form a ‘hedge on stilts’ or the like, as in a palisade in a garden allee or arbor. See palisade.
  • salle de verdure: Small area enclosed by clipped hedges within a bosquet, sometimes containing a statue, parterre, or pool; or a space within a berceau sited within or at the end of a tunnel.
  • Stonehenge: Megalithic remains on Salisbury Plain, England.
  • trilith: A monument, or part of a monument, consisting of three large stones; especially one in prehistoric antiquity consisting of two upright stones with a lintel stone resting upon them as at Stonehenge.
  • trilithon: A monument, or part of a monument, consisting of three large stones; especially one in prehistoric antiquity consisting of two upright stones with a lintel stone resting upon them as at Stonehenge.
  • jawhole: In Scotland, a sink of any kind. A place for pouring out or carrying away slops; from the Scotch verb, jaw, to pour out. In architecture, used sometimes instead of jawstone and jawbox.
  • ante-cour: An approach to the main body of a house; often a link with service quarters.
  • barai: In Khmer architecture (Cambodia), a reservoir or artificial lake.
  • étang: Small lake.
  • polder: Area of low-lying land reclaimed from sea, lake, or river, protected by dikes, especially in The Netherlands. 2. Pollarded tree.
  • bowling green: A carefully maintained, level piece of lawn, originally reserved for the game of bowls (bowling).
  • bowling ground: A carefully maintained, level piece of lawn, originally reserved for the game of bowls (bowling).
  • lawn: An open grass-covered space, generally a smooth, well-kept, more or less level field with few or no shrubs, trees, or plants.
  • prato: Lawn (esp. prato inglese) or meadow.
  • vicar’s close: The lawn and landscape around an English cathedral or church, usually with other religious buildings defining its limits. Where a French or Italian cathedral would relate to street and plaza, the English one is served by its close.
  • druid’s temple: An 18th century garden structure imitating prehistoric circles of upright stones
  • henge: A circle of upright stones or wooden posts.
  • megalith: A stone of great size, as in prehistoric remains such as Stonehenge in England.
  • megalithic: Built of unusually large stones.
  • Megaliths: Large monumental stone structures (e.g. Stonehenge) and tombs (e.g. Newgrange) often embellished with abstract patterns of megalithic art.
  • meydan: See midan.
  • midan: Also see meydan.
  • cerro: A mound or hill. In Mexico applied to the so-called pyramids…
  • earth berm: An artificially created mound of soil or earth.
  • hoyuk: The Turkish equivalent of a tell.
  • huyuk: See hoyuk.
  • knoll: Small rounded hill, eminence, or mount, sometimes artificial.
  • midden: A communal dump associated with pre-European contact, Native American settlements that, along the Atlantic coast, provided European settlers with mounds of oyster shells, a valuable source of lime for making mortar.
  • mound: A heap of any material, especially of permanent character and more or less symmetrical shape…
  • mount: Artificial mound of earth, stones, etc., in a garden (usually 16th or 17th c.) to provide a vantage point from which views might be enjoyed. Advocated (1625) by Francis Bacon (who had mounts constructed at Gray’s Inn, London…).
  • snail-mount: Cone-shaped spiral-mount ascended by a helical path, sometimes with a fabrique at the summit. Known from 16th c., the form has recurred…
  • tel: A mound; the modern Arabic term, which enters into many compound names of sites, as in Egypt and Mesopotamia. Also written tell.
  • tell: The Arabic name, in the Near East, for an artificial mound created by the accumulation of the debris of ancient cities.
  • tepe: In Anatolia (Turkey) and Persia, the equivalent of a tell.
  • aguilla: An obelisk, or the spire of a church tower.
  • chieh: A stone pylon with an inscription which identifies and describes the location where it was erected; usually rectangular in cross section, although some are cylindrical; half the height of a pei.
  • crepido: Any raised base on which other things are built or supported, as of a Roman Temple, altar, obelisk, etc. 2. A raised causeway for foot passengers on the side of a Roman road or street. 3. The projecting members of a cornice, or other ornaments of a building.
  • guglia: In Italian, a building or part of a building, having the shape of a pyramid, obelisk, or pinnacle. Any building having a generally upright and slender form, when not easily classified under some other technical name; thus, a small pagoda or tope, or a monument of undescribed architectural character, or an elaborate German stove of enameled earthenware may be said to be a guglia or of guglia form.
  • guglio: Obelisk, needle, or spire, sometimes confused with a thin pyramid or pinnacle. 2. Meta sudans (sweating spire): an obelisk, thin pyramid, or conical upright with water flowing down its sides.
  • monolith: An architectural member (as an obelisk, the shaft of a column, etc.) consisting of a single stone.
  • obelisk: From Old French, obelisque; from Greek, obeliskos, “spit or pointed pillar.” A tall narrow square shaft, tapering and ending in a pyramidal point.
  • pyramidon: A small pyramid, such as the cap of an obelisk.
  • amusement-park: C20 development that emerged from medieval European pleasure gardens featuring live entertainment, fireworks, dancing, games, and amusement rides…
  • deer-park: Enclosed park for keeping deer, examples of which were known in Anglo-Saxon times, and were used for hunting. Medieval examples were concerned with food production and sport, and were sometimes surrounded with ditches, having entrances called deer-leaps by which the animals could enter but not leave. 2. Seen as a precursor to the landscape-park and as a place of beauty in its own right…
  • esplanade: A linear walking park along the water’s edge, like that at Brooklyn Heights or Battery City Park.
  • hunting-park: Enclosed area of parkland used almost exclusively for the hunting of deer.
  • municipal park: See garden-cemetery; public park.
  • park: A considerable extent of more or less carefully preserved woodland and pasture attached to a residence. A legally enclosed and privileged domain which is especially defined by old English law. 2. A public reservation for recreation and utility, varying in extent from great reservations, such as Yellowstone Park, United States, to a small square, or the like, in a city
  • public park: Garden, open space, or park open to and maintained by or for the public…
  • theme-park: A 1960s term for a type of park devoted to a theme, idea, or ideas, which might have some historical, fictional, or other core. It was invented by the Disney organization at Anaheim, CA, where traditional American vernacular architecture and a main street of c. 1895 were recreated…
  • vest-pocket park: Tiny urban park. Application of International Modernism’s rigid imagery often meant that street frontages and curved street corners were ignored, so that SLOAP resulted. Attempts were made to reclaim such waste space as vest-pocket parks by means of hard and soft landscaping, notably in the USA.
  • Volksgarten: German public park, e.g. that in Vienna.
  • you: Ancient Chinese hunting-park containing artificial mounts (on which the Emperor would perform rituals) that evolved into gardens where birds, fish, and livestock could breed and plants with symbolic meanings could be cultivated to provide agreeable settings and habitats. IT evolved into the yuan. See Chinese garden-design.
  • banquet: Narrow footpath beside an aqueduct or road. 2. Raised standing-place or platform behind a rampart. 3. Window-seat or long seat against a wall or recessed into it. 4. Ceremonial or State feast.
  • étoile: French for star, so a circus where several straight paths converge, especially in a wood.
  • shen tao: A sacred path leading to a traditional Chinese temple, tombs, or shrines; located along the central axis of approach.
  • trail: Continuous horizontal running enrichment of vine-leaves, tendrils, stalks, and grapes, called also grapevine, vignette, vine-scroll, or vinette, often found enriching Perp. Canopies and screens…
  • walk: A path or paved way for pedestrians.
  • xystum: Open path, wall, promenade, or alley. 2. Ambulacrum, atrium, or parvis in front of a basilica.
  • pergula: Also see pergola.
  • bonsai: Japanese term meaning the art/practice of growing plants in containers to suggest natural scenery in miniature. It originated in China as shanshui penjing.
  • clump: Cluster of trees, often features of 18th c. English and American landscape-gardens…
  • coppice: Small wood or thicket of deciduous trees grown for the purpose of periodical rotational cutting down to a low stump to encourage the growth of long, thin uprights used for basket-making, fences, hurdles, thatching, etc. In recent years willow has emerged as a desirable organic material in the fine and applied arts, not least for its flexibility.
  • dell: Small, deep, well-planted natural hollow or vale, adopted as an aesthetic feature of 18th c. English garden-design
  • grapevine: See trail.
  • massif: See clump.
  • orchard: Area for growing fruit trees. 2. Formerly, a sheltered turfed area surrounded by a barrier, planted with trees…
  • topiary: Relating to the clipping of trees and shrubs into regular of fantastic shapes, in a formal garden. This practice is called the topiary art.
  • topiary work: The clipping or trimming of plants, trees, and shrubs, usually evergreens, into ornamental and fantastic shapes.
  • city cross: In the Middle Ages, a structure with a raised platform from which public addresses could be made, laws and edicts proclaimed, and the like; usually, a steeplelike ornamental building ending in a cross. In some instances, this structure was high and elaborate enough to supply a pulpit or stand for the speaker, raised above the pavement at the base.
  • horse block: A block or platform, often set near a door, on which one steps when mounting or dismounting from a horse.
  • druid’s cave: Rustic structure in a landscape-garden, reflecting a contemporary interest in British Antiquity, archaeological theories, ruins, and Romanticism
  • druid’s cell: Rustic structure in a landscape-garden, reflecting a contemporary interest in British Antiquity, archaeological theories, ruins, and Romanticism
  • eye-catcher: Purely decorative building, without function, such as the Gothic ruins built to romanticize parks and gardens in 18th century England.
  • khirbeh: A ruin, in Muslim architecture.
  • ruin: Carefully contrived specially constructed ‘ruins’ (sometimes called folly) or real ruins (e.g. of a castle or abbey) were often incorporated within 18th c. English Picturesque landscapes, a fashion that spread to Europe…
  • sham: An 18th century term for a fake ‘ruin’ or other building erected for effect…
  • reposoir: Shelter of low seats, often covered with climbing plants trained on an open lattice. 2. Ornamental arch in a fabrique, e.g. the 18th c. ogee example in a pyramid at Wentworh Woodhouse, Yorkshire. 3. Wayside altar.
  • pelourinho: A decorative shaft or column set in a public square of a Portuguese city as a token of municipal rights.
  • pavilion: Originally a tent, especially an elaborately ornamented shelter; later, any portion of a building projected forward and otherwise set apart, or even a separate structure.
  • sundial: A device for indicating the time of day by means of the shadow cast by the sloping edge of a projecting point, or gnomon, set in a surface upon which the hours of the day are set forth on points radiating from the gnomon. It is sometimes in the form of a table in a garden, and sometimes it is placed conspicuously as an ornament on a wall or gable.
  • espalier: A trelliswork of various forms on which the branches of fruit trees or fruit bushes are extended horizontally, in fan shape, etc., in a single plane, to secure a freer circulation of air for the plant and better exposure to the sun. 2. A tree or plant so grown.
  • pergola: A structure of posts or piers carrying beams and trelliswork for climbing plants.
  • pergolo: A structure of posts or piers carrying beams and trelliswork for climbing plants.
  • treillage: A lattice or trellis, often used for growing vines and climbing plants.
  • trellage: Same as treillage.
  • belvedere: Belle vedere means beautiful view in Italian. A building, or architectural feature of a building, designed and situated to look out upon a pleasing scene.
  • outlook: A view from a particular place, or the place offering a view.
  • abuttal: A piece of ground which bounds on one side the lot or plot under consideration. Thus, the owner has to be careful not to encroach upon his abuttals by walls or substructure except by party wall agreement, or the like.
  • alameda: An allee, or sheltered garden walk or drive.
  • allars: Garden-walk. 2. See alley; alura.
  • allee: A sheltered garden walk or drive.
  • allée: French term for a broad walk planted with trees.
  • ambulacrum: A promenade shaded by trees.
  • banquette: A sidewalk of about 18″ width.
  • boardwalk: A walkway made of boards or planks, often a promenade along a shore or beach.
  • close walk: Shady walk, usually between tall hedges.
  • path: Walk or track made for pedestrians connecting A to B. In a garden it is often unobtrusive, may afford views, and should aim to be as ‘natural’ as possible… 2. Pavement or footway by the side of a street, called sidewalk in the USA.
  • promenade: A suitable place for walking for pleasure, as a mall.
  • terazzo: A level area and walkway in front of a house. 2. A line of houses built as a single unit of design.
  • aquifer: A geological formation containing or conducting groundwater, especially one capable of providing water in usable quantities to springs or wells.
  • camp-shedding: Facing of piles and boards along a river bank to protect it from collapsing due to action of the current. Also camp-shot, camp-sheeting, camp-sheathing.
  • cascade: In the architectural sense, an artificial waterfall so arranged as to form part of an architectural or decorative composition. The most important example is that in the garden of the Royal Palace, at Caserta, near Naples.
  • dam: Bank or barrier of earth, masonry, etc., built across a stream to obstruct its flow and raise its level, to form a reservoir, or to make water available to turn a mill-wheel, etc. 2. Causeway over swampy ground.
  • dock: A platform often of wood and sometimes floating, providing access to the water.
  • emissarium: In ancient Roman construction, an artificial channel to drain a lake or a stagnant body of water.
  • fishpond: Artificial reservoir or controlled pool, fed from a stream, in which fish were kept for food. Sometimes formed in series, they were features (called stewponds) of religious foundations (e.g. abbeys) or grand country-houses. Later they transmogrified into purely ornamental ponds stocked with, e.g. goldfish, often incorporating small fountains.
  • fishpool: Artificial reservoir or controlled pool, fed from a stream, in which fish were kept for food. Sometimes formed in series, they were features (called stewponds) of religious foundations (e.g. abbeys) or grand country-houses. Later they transmogrified into purely ornamental ponds stocked with, e.g. goldfish, often incorporating small fountains.
  • lake: Large expanse of (usually fresh) water, entirely surrounded by land: it should be sufficiently extensive to form a geographical feature, as opposed to a small pond or pool
  • levee: Same as dike, the term being employed especially in the southern states of the U.S. as along the Mississippi. It is apparently the use, originating in the French city of New Orleans, of the French word level or levee, meaning raised or heaped up, as a bank of earth.
  • quay: A marginal space around or along the water front of dock or still harbor, a river landing, a canal, or the like… 2. A permanent landing place or landing stage of any sort, as at the side of the tracks at a railway station.
  • spau: Named after the town in present-day Belgium, it is a medicinal spring or well with supposedly beneficial waters, so also a town, locality, or resort possessing such features. Numerous spas flourished in Europe, and even in and around London in the 18th c.
  • spaw: Named after the town in present-day Belgium, it is a medicinal spring or well with supposedly beneficial waters, so also a town, locality, or resort possessing such features. Numerous spas flourished in Europe, and even in and around London in the 18th c.
  • spawe: Named after the town in present-day Belgium, it is a medicinal spring or well with supposedly beneficial waters, so also a town, locality, or resort possessing such features. Numerous spas flourished in Europe, and even in and around London in the 18th c.
  • water ramp: A series of pools, arranged so that water flows from one to another.
  • shelter-belt: Windbreak formed of groups of trees and shrubs to afford protection against prevailing winds.
  • windbreak: An arrangement of vertical poles, bushes, boughs, bundled rushes, or of stones, in a semicircle or in a straight line, as a shelter from wind. Used by American Indians to protect tent entrances. The windbreak in winter is often extended entirely around the tipi.
  • wind-break: An arrangement of vertical poles, bushes, boughs, bundled rushes, or of stones, in a semicircle or in a straight line, as a shelter from wind. Used by American Indians to protect tent entrances. The windbreak in winter is often extended entirely around the tipi.

Also see Architecture index.