Identifying American Architecture (1977)

Index

Foreword by Sir Nikolaus Pevsner v
Prefaces vii-viii
Styles 1
Spanish Colonial, 1600-1840
Mission Style, 1890-1920
Pueblo Style, 1905-1940
Spanish Colonial Revival, 1915-1940
New England Colonial, 1600-1700
Southern Colonial, 1600-1700
French Colonial, 1700-1830
Dutch Colonial, 1700-1830
Georgian, 1700-1800
Federal, 1780-1820
Roman Classicism, 1790-1830
Colonial Revival, 1870-1920
Greek Revival, 1820-1860
Egyptian Revival, 1830-1850, 1920-1930
Gothic Revival, 1830-1860
Victorian Gothic, 1860-1890
Italian Villa, 1830-1880
Italianate, 1840-1880
Renaissance Revival, 1840-1890
Second Renaissance Revival, 1890-1920
Romanesque Revival, 1840-1900
Victorian Romanesque, 1870-1890
Richardsonian Romanesque, 1870-1900
The Octagon, 1850-1860
Chateau, 1860-1890
Second Empire, 1860-1890
Eastern Stick Style, 1860-1890
Western Stick Style, 1890-1920
Eastlake, 1870-1890
Shingle Style, 1880-1900
Queen Anne Style, 1880-1900
Sullivanesque, 1890-1920
Beaux-Arts Classicism, 1890-1920
Neo-Classicism, 1900-1920
Bungalow Style, 1890-1940
Prairie Style, 1900-1920
International Style, 1920-1945
Art Deco, 1925-1940
Art Moderne, 1930-1945

Index Following page 79
Pictorial Glossary 81
Orders 82
Roofs 89
Roof details 95
Chimneys 98
Gables 100
Porches 101
Porticos 103
Entrances 104
Doors 107
Windows 108
Bricks 111
Wall finishes 113
Bibliography 117
Photo Credits and Locations 118

Styles

Spanish Colonial, 1600-1840
The Spanish Colonial house in characterized as a low, long one-story building with a covered porch extending along the façade. Adobe bricks or stone were used for wall construction. The wall often was covered with a lime wash or plaster. Extending roof beams and porch posts were left round or roughly squared. By the early nineteenth century, many two-story houses were built with encircling porches and covered with wooden shingles. The rear of the house often faced an enclosed patio or garden. Churches or missions of Texas and the Southwest were vernacular interpretations of contemporary Mexican church building in the Baroque style. They were richly ornamented with churrigueresque-style decoration or simplified Renaissance-style detailing. (Blumenson, 3)

Mission Style, 1890-1920
Characteristic of the Mission style is simplicity of form. Round arches supported by piers punctuate stucco or plastered walls. Color and texture are provided in the broad red-tiled roof. Roof eaves with exposed rafters may extend well beyond the walls. At times the plain wall surface is continued upward forming a parapet. Towers, curvilinear gables and small balconies or balconets are used on large buildings. The only surface ornamentation is a plain string course that outlines arches, occasional gables and balconies. (Blumenson, 5)

Pueblo Style, 1905-1940
The Pueblo-style house is characterized by battered walls, rounded corners and flat roofs with projecting rounded roof beams or vigas. Straight-headed windows generally are set deep into the walls. Second and third floor levels are stepped or terraced, resembling the Indian habitats called pueblos of New Mexico and Arizona. (Blumenson, 7)

Spanish Colonial Revival, 1915-1940
The unique feature of the Spanish Colonial Revival style is the ornate low-relief carvings highlighting arches, columns, window surrounds and cornices and parapets. Red-tiled hipped roofs and arcaded porches also are typical. Stone or brick exterior walls often are left exposed or finished in plaster or stucco. Windows can be either straight or arched. Iron window grilles and balconies also may be used. A molded or arcaded cornice highlights the eaves. The facades of large buildings often are enriched with curvilinear and decorated parapets, cornice window heads, and symbolic bell tower. (Blumenson, 9)

New England Colonial, 1600-1700
The New England house of the seventeenth century is characterized by a natural use of materials in a straightforward manner. The box-like appearance is relieved by a prominent chimney, a sparse distribution of small casement-type windows. The one-room house often was expanded by adding a room against the chimney end, forming a large house with a centrally located chimney. The well known “salt-box” shape house also provided rooms by extending the rear roof slope. Other usable space was made by placing windows in the gable end forming a half story. In larger houses the upper floor projected beyond the lower floors creating an overhand known as a jetty. (Blumenson, 11)

Southern Colonial, 1600-1700
The Southern Colonial brick or timber frame house generally is narrow, only one room deep, and covered with a steeply pitched roof. Medieval characteristics such as curvilinear and steeped gables, massive chimneys, diagonal stacks, and a variety of brick bonds often are combined with classical elements, such as symmetrical arrangements of openings, modillioned cornices, and molded belt course. (Blumenson, 13)

French Colonial, 1700-1830
Early French settlers of the eighteenth century built structures of a half-timber frame method called post on sill or poteaux-sur-sole. The spaces between the vertical posts were filled with clay and rubble stone or sometimes bricks. The lower slope of the pavilion-type roof projects well beyond the walls, forming a cover for the porch or galerie. French-type double casement windows are hinged at the sides or jambs and latch at the center. In French plantation houses of the early nineteenth century, the main floor is raised and encircled by a covered galerie. An exterior staircase provides access to the main living quarters. (Blumenson, 15)

Dutch Colonial, 1700-1830
The early eighteenth century Dutch Colonial house built in brick or stone was covered by a steeply pitched gable roof. The straight-sided gables were finished with parapets raised on elbows. The most noticeable feature of the late eighteenth and early nineteenth century Dutch Colonial house is the gambrel roof. The lower slope of the roof often flared beyond the front and rear of the houses forming a deep overhang. (Blumenson, 17)

Georgian, 1700-1800
The Georgian house is characterized by a formal arrangement of parts employing a symmetrical composition enriched with classical detail. The façade often is emphasized by a pedimented projecting pavilion with colossal pilasters or columns, and a Palladian or Venetian window. Sliding sash windows are common on houses of the eighteenth century. Each sash has several lights using as few as 6 or as many as 20 panes of glass in one sash. (Blumenson, 19)

Federal, 1780-1820
The Federal style is typified by a low pitched roof, smooth façade, large glazed areas and elliptical fan light with flanking slender side lights. Geometric forms such as polygonal or bowed bays accentuate the rhythm of the exterior as well as indicate new interior spaces. Tripart windows often are framed in recessed arches. Ornamental elements found on many of the houses during this period herald the work of the English designers, the Adam brothers. (Blumenson, 21)

Roman Classicism, 1790-1830
Typical of Roman Classicism is the one-story Roman temple form employing variations of the Roman orders. The raised first floor is characteristic of design inspired by the proper Roman temple built on a platform or podium. The four-columned portico with pediment enclosing a lunette is one of the most often copied features in the Roman idiom which was popularized by Thomas Jefferson (1743-1826). Generally classical moldings are left plain without enrichment and painted white. (Blumenson, 23)

Colonial Revival, 1870-1920
The Colonial Revival house is often a combination of various Colonial styles and contemporary elements. Generally the Revival house is larger than its Colonial counterpart and some of the individual elements are exaggerated or out of proportion with other parts of the house. Historical details such as an eighteenth century swan’s neck pediment or Flemish brick bond may be found on a house with large single-light window sash, stained glass, late nineteenth century bevel siding or large entry porches or porticos. Some Revival houses, however, are executed with such historical accuracy that they are difficult to distinguish from original houses. (Blumenson, 25)

Greek Revival, 1820-1860
The Greek Revival style is an adaptation of the classic Greek temple front employing details of either the Doric, Ionic, or Corinthian order. The columns support a full entablature and a low pitch pediment. Also many houses were built without the colossal temple front. The rectangular transom over the door was popular and often was broken by two engaged piers flanked by side lights that surround the door. The shouldered architrave trim was widely used for doors and windows. Upper floor lighting is incorporated ingeniously into the enlarged frieze of the entablature. (Blumenson, 27)

Egyptian Revival, 1830-1850, 1920-1930
The Egyptian Revival style is identifiable by distinctive columns and smooth monolithic exterior finish. Characteristics are battered walls edged with roll or rope-like moldings, tall straight-headed windows with inclined jambs, and a deep cavetto or gorge-and roll cornice. Generally roofs are flat and a smooth wall finish provides a monumental effect reminiscent of pylons or gateways to Egyptian temples. The later examples of Egyptian Revival used a cement or smooth ashlar finish to cover large buildings such as theaters. (Blumenson, 29)

Gothic Revival, 1830-1860
The popular Gothic Revival style was used for everything from picturesque timber cottages to stone castles. Characteristics of the Gothic cottage and villa are steeply pitched roofs, wall dormers, polygonal chimney pots, hood molds over the windows and a curvilinear gingerbread trim along the eaves and gable edges. The stone castle version of the style included a large carriage porch entry, large pointed windows with tracery and colored glass, towers, and battlements. The standard for Gothic Revival windows was variety. Church and civic architecture adapted Gothic principles and forms with more academic correctness. The exterior of many buildings was finished with vertical planks and strips in the board and batten technique. (Blumenson, 31)

Victorian Gothic, 1860-1890
The most distinguishing feature of the Victorian Gothic style is the polychromatic exterior finish. Materials of differing colors and texture are juxtaposed, creating decorative bands highlighting corners, arches and arcades. Ornamental pressed bricks, terra cotta tile and incised carvings of foliated and geometric patters also are used to decorate wall surfaces. Straight-headed openings are used in addition to traditional Gothic (pointed arch) windows and doors. In timber frame buildings the gable, porch, and eave trim is massive and strong, resembling the structural members. This is in sharp contrast to the lighter curvilinear gingerbread-type trim of the Gothic Revival. (Blumenson, 33)

Italian Villa, 1830-1880
The outstanding feature of the Italian Villa style is the combination of the tall tower with a two-storyL” or “T” shaped floor plan. The roof with projecting eaves has a gentle pitch resembling the pediment shape of classical temples. Other distinctive features are the grouping of either straight or round-headed windows into threes or small arcades, and the placement of porches or arcaded loggias between the tower and house or at the corners. A smooth stucco finish highlights the classic simplicity of the design while an exuberance of enriched ornamentation provides a baroque appearance. The overall composition is an asymmetrical balancing of classical forms intending a picturesque quality. (Blumenson, 35)

Italianate, 1840-1880
The Italianate style is a rectangular (almost square), two or three-story house with very wide eaves usually supported by large brackets, tall thin first floor windows, and a low-pitch hip roof topped with a cupola. The formal balances of the house often is accentuated by pronounced moldings and details, such as string course and rusticated quoins. A central one-bay porch or long porches also are evident in the style. (Blumenson, 37)

Renaissance Revival, 1840-1890
Buildings in the Renaissance Revival style show a definite studied formalism. The tightly contained cube is a symmetrical composition of early sixteenth century Italian elements. Characteristics include finely cut ashlar that may be accentuated with rusticated quoins, architrave framed windows, and doors supporting entablatures or pediments. Each sash may have several lights or just one. A belt or string course may divide the ground or first floor from the upper floors. Smaller square windows indicate the top or upper story. (Blumenson, 39)

The Second Renaissance Revival, 1890-1920
Scale and size distinguish the later Revival from the earlier Renaissance Revival. Large buildings – usually three tall stories – are organized into distinct horizontal divisions by pronounced belt or string courses. Each floor is articulated differently. If the Doric Order or rustication is used on the first floor then the upper floor will be treated with a different order and finish. The window trim or surround also usually changes from floor to floor. Additional floors are seen in the small mezzanine or entresol windows. Arcades and arched openings often are seen in the same building with straight headed or pedimented openings. Enriched and projecting cornices are supported with large modillions or consoles. The roof often is highlighted with a balustrade. (Blumenson, 41)

Romanesque Revival, 1840-1900
The monochromatic brick or stone Romanesque Revival building is highlighted by the semi-circular arch for window and door openings. The arch is used decoratively to enrich corbel tables along the eaves and belt or string courses making horizontal divisions. The archivolt or intrados of compound arches and the capitals of columns are carved with geometric medieval moldings. Facades are flanked by square or polygonal towers of differing heights and covered with various roof shapes. (Blumenson, 43)

Victorian Romanesque, 1870-1890
A polychromatic exterior finish combined with the semi-circular arch highlight the Victorian Romanesque style. Different colored and textured stone or brick for window trim, arches, quoins and belt courses relieve the rock-faced stone finish. Decorated bricks and terra cotta tiles in conjunction with stone trim also may be used. The round arches usually supported by short polished stone columns. Foliated forms, grotesques, and arabesques decorated capitals, corbels, belt courses and arches. Windows vary in size and shape. (Blumenson, 45)

Richardsonian Romanesque, 1870-1900
Richardonisan Romanesque houses, following the examples of H.H. Richardson (1838-1886), are characterized by a straightforward treatment of stone, broad roof planes and a select distribution of openings. The overall effect depends on mass, volume, and scale rather than enriched or decorative detailing. The uniform rock-faced exterior finish is highlighted with an occasional enrichment of foliated forms on capitals or belt course. The façade is punctuated with transomed windows set deeply into the wall and arranged in groups in a ribbon-like fashion. The large arched entry without columns or piers for support is the one most often used. Towers are short and chimneys are usually squat so as not to distract from the solid shape of the building. (Blumenson, 47)

The Octagon, 1850-1860
The octagon was an innovation in American domestic architecture. The concept of the centrally planned home was far advanced of the time. The ideal octagon was a two- to three-story house characterized by a raised basement, encircling verandas or porches, a cupola, belvedere or roof deck, and minimal ornamental detailings. According to Orson Fowler (1809-1887) the inventor of the octagon house, the beauty of the house rests with its forms, the economy of materials (concrete), the functional interior, and the splendid views offered by any one of eight exposures in addition to observations from the roof. Fowler conceived of the octagon house from rethinking the needs and requirements of the working class family. The octagon house was accepted across the country and adapted to various styles. (Blumenson, 49)

Chateau, 1860-1890
The Chateau style is massive and irregular in silhouette. It is characterized by steeply pitched hip or gable roofs with dormers, towers, and tall elaborately decorated chimneys with corbelled caps. Croisettes or cross windows are paired and divided by a mullion and a transom bar. The basket-handle arch, similar to a Tudor arch without a point, also is used for windows. At times Renaissance elements such as semi-circular arches or pilasters are mixed with hood molds, Tudor arches, stone window tracery, and finials of the Gothic style. (Blumenson, 51)

Second Empire, 1860-1890
The Second Empire style house is an imposing two or three-story symmetrical square block with a projecting central pavilion often extending above the rest of the house. The distinguishing feature is the mansard roof covered with multi-colored slates or tinplates. Classical moldings and details such as quoins, cornices, and belt course have great depth and are dramatized by different textures and colored materials. Windows are arched and pedimented, sometimes in pairs with molded surrounds. Entrance doors often are arched double doors with glass upper panels. First floor windows are usually very tall. (Blumenson, 53)

Eastern Stick Style, 1860-1890
The asymmetrical composition of the Eastern stick style is highlighted by functional-appearing decorative “stick work”. Steeply pitched gable roof, cross gables, towers and pointed dormers, and large verandas and porches are also characteristic. The resulting pattern of vertical, horizontal and diagonal boards applied over the horizontal siding becomes highly decorative. Oversized and unornamented structural corner posts, roof rafters, purlins, brackets, porch posts and railings complement the decorative “stick work”. Sash or casement-type windows have either single or multiple lights. (Blumenson, 55)

Western Stick Style, 1890-1920
The open and informal Western Stick style house is characterized by gently pitched gable roof that spreads out well beyond the walls and projecting balconies, porches, recessed entries, and attached loggias. A unique feature of the style is the attenuated and exposed stick-like roof rafters and purlins that project well beyond the ends of the roof. Window lintels, railings and other beams protrude through vertical posts. When pegs are used to join the horizontal and vertical members, the ends are rounded and polished as are the corners of posts, beams and rafters. The exterior finish of wood shingles or wood siding is protected by earth-tone stains. (Blumenson, 57)

Eastlake, 1870-1890
Eastlake was a popular decorative style of ornamentation found on houses of various other styles, e.g. Victorian Gothic, Stick Style and Queen Anne. This decorative style is named for Charles Locke Eastlake (1833-1906), an English interior designer and critic of Gothic Revival style. Porch posts, railings, balusters and pendants were characterized by a massive and robust quality. These members were worked or turned on a mechanical lathe, giving the appearance of heavy legged furniture of the period. Large curved brackets, scrolls, and other stylized elements often are placed at every corner, turn or projection along the façade. Perforated gables and pediments, carved panels, and a profusion of spindles and lattice work found along porch eaves add to the complexity of the façade. These lighter elements combined with the heavier and oversized architectural members exaggerated the three-dimensional quality. (Blumenson, 59)

Shingle Style, 1880-1900
The Shingle style house, two or three stories tall, is typified by the uniform covering of wood shingles (unpainted) from roof to foundation walls. The sweep of the roof may continue to the first floor level proving cover for porches, or is steeply pitched and multi-planed. The eaves of the roof are close to the walls as not to distract from the homogeneous and monochromatic shingle covering. Casement and sash windows are generally small, may have many lights, and often are grouped into twos or threes. (Blumenson, 61)

Queen Anne Style, 1880-1900
The Queen Anne style is a most varied and decoratively rich style. The asymmetrical composition consists of a variety of forms, textures, materials and colors. Architectural parts include towers, turrets, tall chimneys, projecting pavilions, porches, bays and encircling verandahs. The textured wall surfaces occasionally are complemented by colored glass panels in the windows. Elements and forms from many styles are manipulated into an exuberant visual display. (Blumenson, 63)

Sullivanesque, 1890-1920
An intricate weaving of linear and geometric forms with stylized foliage in a symmetrical pattern is the unique element of the Sullivanesque style, originated by Louis Sullivan (1856-1924). Bold geometric facades are pierced with either arched or lintel-type openings. The wall surface is highlighted with extensive low-relief sculptural ornamentation in terra cotta. Buildings often are topped with deep projecting eaves and flat roofs. The multi-story office complex is highly regimented into specific zones – ground story, intermediate floors, and the attic or roof. The intermediate floors are arranged in vertical bands. (Blumenson, 65)

Beaux Arts Classicism, 1890-1920
Beaux Arts Classicism is characterized by large and grandiose compositions with an exuberance of detail and variety of stone finished. Highlights of the style are projecting facades or pavilions with colossal columns often grouped in pairs, enriched moldings and free-standing statuary. Windows may be enframed by free-standing columns, balustraded sill, and pedimented entablature on top. Pronounced cornices and enriched entablatures are topped with a tall parapet, balustrade, or attic story. (Blumenson, 67)

Neo-Classicism, 1900-1920
Neo-Classicism is based on primarily the Greek and to a lesser extent the Roman architectural orders. IT is distinguished by symmetrically arranged buildings of monumental proportions finished with a smooth or polished stone surface. Colossal pedimented porticos may highlight the façade flanked by a series of colossal pilasters. When windows are employed they are large single-light sashes. Attic stories and parapets are popular but statuary along the roof lines is never employed. Since the Greek Orders are preferred, the arch is not often used and enriched moldings are rare. (Blumenson, 69)

Bungalow Style, 1890-1940
The typical bungalow is a one-story house with gently pitched broad gables. A lower gable usually covers an open or screened porch and a larger gable covers the main portion of the house. In larger bungalows the gable is steeper, with intersecting cross gable or dormers. Rafters, ridge beams and purlins extend beyond the wall and roof. Chimneys are of rubble, cobblestone or rough-faced brick. Proch piers often are battered. Wood shingles are the favorite exterior finish although many use stucco or brick. Exposed structural members and trim work usually are painted but the shingles are left in a natural state or treated with earth-tone stains. Windows are either sash or casement with many lights or single panes of glass. Shingled porch railings often terminated with a flared base. The bungalow, like other simple but functional houses, was subject to variations such as the California, the Swiss, the Colonial, Tudor and others according to locale and fashions of the time. (Blumenson, 71)

Prairie Style, 1900-1920
The Prairie style consists of a one- or two-story house built with brick or timber covered with stucco. The central portion rises slightly higher than the flanking wings. The eaves of the low-pitch roof extend well beyond the wall creating a definite horizontal and low to the ground quality. The large and very low chimney is found at the axis of the intersecting roof planes. Extending walls form the sides of terraces, balconies or delineate walks and entrances. Casement windows grouped into horizontal banks and sometimes continuing around corners emphasize the length of the house. The exterior walls are highlighted by dark wood strips against a lighter stucco finish or by a coping or ledge of smooth stucco along brick walls. (Blumenson, 73)

International Style, 1920-1945
The International style is characterized by flat roof tops, smooth and uniform wall surface, large expanse of windows, and projecting or cantilevered balconies and upper floor. The complete absence of ornmanetation also is typical. The asymmetrically balanced composition is at times placed in a dramatic context or orientation with the landscape. Projecting eaves are closed or boxed and covered with the same finish as the wall surface. Roofs without eaves terminate flush with the plane of the wall. Wood and metal casement windows set flush to the wall as well as sliding windows are popular. A series of small rectangular windows often are placed high up along the wall surface forming a clerestory. Some permanently closed or fixed windows extend from floor to ceiling in a single pane creating large curtain-like walls of glass. Wooden trim is often painted or stained in earth tones to contrast with the white painted board siding or plastered surface. (Blumenson, 75)

Art Deco, 1925-1940
Art Deco is characterized by a linear, hard edge or angular composition often with a vertical emphasis and highlighted with stylized decoration. The facades of buildings often are arranged in a series of set backs emphasizing the geometric form. Strips of windows with decorated spandrels add to the vertical feeling of the composition. Hard-edged low relief ornamentation is found around door and window openings, string courses and along the roof edges or parapet. Ornamental detailing often is executed in the same material as the building or in various metals, colored glazed bricks or mosaic tiles. Although straight-headed windows (metal sash or casement type) are more popular, an occasional circular window or rounded window and door jamb is found. (Blumenson, 77)

Art Moderne, 1930-1945
Soft or rounded corners, flat roofs, smooth wall finish without surface ornamentation, and horizontal bands of windows create a distinctive streamlined or wind-tunnel look which characterized the Art Moderne style. The streamlined effect is emphasized by the use of curved window glass that wraps around corners. Ornamentation consists of mirrored panels, cement panels, and an occasional metal panel with low relief decoration around doorways and windows. Aluminum and stainless steel often are used for door and window trim, railings and balusters. Metal or wooden doors may have circular windows, large panels of glass or patterns with circular and angular outlines. (Blumenson, 79)

Index of terms

This is an index of the numbered boldface terms set in lists throughout the book. The references following the terms are to page numbers.
Abacus, 82, 83, 86; molded, 85
Abutment, 105
Acanthus: flower, 85; leaves, 84, 85, 88, 105
Adobe, 3, 112
Aedicula, 67
Anchor, 73
Anchor beams, 17, 112
Ancones, 37, 39, 98
Anthemion, 105
Apophyge, 86
Apron: paneled, 39; moveable, 107
Apse, 31
Arcade, 9, 43, 45
Arcaded attic story, 45
Arcaded cornice, 9
Arcaded gallery, 41
Arcaded logia, 35
Arch: basket-handle, 51; cinquefoil, 33, 110; compound, 9, 43: elliptical, 21, 106; equilateral, 33; flat, 19; four-cusp, 110; inflected, 110; ogee, 51, 110; pointed, 31, 33, 96; pointed drop, 110; relieving, 33, 47, 111; Richardsonian, 106; round, 37, 47, 110; rounded horseshoe, 110; segmental relieving, 13, 92, 103; semi-circular, 51; shouldered, 33; shouldered depressed, 110; spandrel of, 45; trefoil, 33, 110; Tudor, 106; two-cusp, 110
Arched double doors, 53, 101
Arched entry, 43, 45, 47
Arched portal, 9, 106, 107
Arched tracery, 51
Arched window, 65
Arched window opening, 9, 23
Architrave, 21, 23, 27, 82, 83, 87
Architrave cornice, 39
Architrave multiple fascias, 84, 88
Architrave trim, 27, 104, 105, 109
Architrave window frames, 39
Archivolt, 5, 43, 105, 106, 107
Arris, 82
Art Deco, 76
Art Moderne, 78
Ashlar: coursed, 19, 29, 45, 47, 113, 114, 115; random coursed, 29, 113; rock-faced, 45, 47, 114; roughly cut, 113; rusticated, 67, 113; simulated, 19; smooth finish, 29, 39, 69, 113; uncoursed, 113
Astragal, 85, 116; molding, 86
Atlantes, 67
Attic base, 83
Attic story, 51, 67, 69; windows, 27; arcaded, 45
Baguette, 86
Balcony, 25,35,51,57,73,102; cantilevered, 75; sill, 57; rail, 57
Balconets, 33; iron 5
Ball and flower molding, 99
Balusters, 59
Balustrade, 19, 39, 41, 67
Balustraded deck, 95
Balustraded terrace, 51, 73
Bargeboards, 31, 96
Base, 59, 84, 86, 87, 88, 105
Basement: raised, 15, 23, 49, 67
Basket-handle arch, 51
Battered walls, 7
Battlements, 31, 97, 99
Battlemented parapet, 43
Bay: polygonal, 23; projecting, 55; rectangular, 35; two-story, 61
Bay window, 25, 31, 101
Bead and reel molding, 95
Beaded’ horizontal board siding, 115
Beam: tie, 71; iron anchor, 17,112; collar, 71, 100; ridge, 100
Beaux-Arts Classicism, 66
Bed molding, 92, 95, 116
Belvedere, 97
Bell-cast roof, 49, 94
Bell tower, 3, 5, 9
Belt course, 13, 19, 35, 39, 41, 53
Bevel siding, 23
Blind arcade, 43
Board: corner, 27; drip, 107; frieze, 53; rake, 100; siding, 25
Board and batten shutters, 17
Board and batten finish, 31
Board door, 107
Bond: chevron pattern, 13; Dutch cross, 17; Flemish, 13, 25, 92, 111
Bowed bays, 21
Boxed cornice, 92
Boxed eaves, 75
Brace: collar, 100; knee, 55, 71; X, 55
Bracket, 37, 47, 53, 105; fan-like, 59; modillion-like, 13; scrolled, 33, 59, 98
Bracketed cornice, 23, 53
Bracketed gabled overdoor, 101
Brick, 111-112; adobe, 3, 112; decorative pattern, 96; molded, 111; pressed, 33; rubbed or gauged, 111; tumbling, 17, 112
Brick bond: decorative, 33; English, 111; Flemish, 13, 111
Brick arch, 113
Brick finish, 45, 53, 73
Broken pediment (swan’s neck), 25, 104
Bull’s eye corner block, 21
Bundled shaft, 29
Bungalow, 70 Buttress: corner, 31, 43; domed, 43; rounded, 45; volute, 101; wall, 43
Calmes, 108 Canales, 3, 5, 7 Canopy, 45, 51, 79, 101 Cantilevered balcony, 75
Capital, 82, 84, 87, 105; bracket-like, 3; carved and molded, 9; foliated, 45, 106; grotesques on, 107; lotus flower, 29; of pilaster strips, 65; plain, 23; unadorned, 86; with piers, 47
Carriage porch, 31, 91, 102
Cartouche, 101
Caryatides, 67
Casement window, 11, 15, 57, 59, 73, 75, 108
Catsllde roof, 11, 90
Caulicoli, 85
Cavetto, 85
Cavetto cornice, 29
Cement panels, 79
Central block, 73, 98
Checkerboard stone work, 45
Chevron pattern bond, 13
Cinquefoil arch, 33, 110
Chateau, 50
Chimney, 98-100; centrally located, 11; end wall, 98; exterior, 13, 71, 99; gable end, 17; interior, 15, 98
Chimney caps, 13, 51, 53
Chimney pent, 13, 99
Chimney pots, 31, 96, 99
Chimney stacks: arcaded, 25; diagonal, 13; free standing, 13, 99; pilastered, 25; T-shape, 100
Cinquefoil arch, 33
Clapboard, 11, 104, 115
Classical door surround, 9
Clay roof tile, 3, 5, 9
Clerestory windows, 75
Closed eaves, 75
Closer: king’s 111; queen’s, 111
Cobblestone, 113
Collar brace, 100
Collar tie or beam, 71, 100
Colonettes: wooden, 15
Colonial Revival, 24
Column: attenuated, 21; coupled, 65; Doric, 18, 26,104; fluted, 19, 82, 83, 84; Ionic, 27, 69; monumental, 19, 65; Roman Doric, 69; smooth, 45, 84, 86, 105; stuccoed brick, 15; unfluted, 86. See also Greek Orders.
Composite Order, 88
Compound arch, 9, 43
Concrete wall, 49
Conical roof, 45, 51
Console, 35, 98, 105
Coping, 5, 73, 79, 97
Corbel stop, 31, 43
Corbel table, 43, 45
Corbeled: chimney caps, 13; cornice, 51; shoulder, 13; turret, 33
Corbels, 9, 39, 47, 98
Corinthian capital, 85
Corinthian Order, 84
Corner boards, 21, 27
Corner block, 21
Corner lights, 27
Corner post, 11, 55
Corners: rounded, 79
Cornice, 27, 39, 41, 67, 84, 87, 88, 89, 95, 116; arcaded, 9; architrave, 39; boxed, 92; bracketed, 53; bracketed projecting, 23; cavetto, 29; corbeled, 51; modillioned, 19; molded, 9, 96, 116; projecting, 97; raking, 27, 89; terra cotta, 96; window head, 9, 39, 104
Corona, 82, 116
Corredor, 3
Coupled columns, 67
Crenelles, 97
Cresting, 51, 53, 101
Crockets, 31
Croisette, 51
Cross-gable, 33, 47, 51, 91
Cross-window, 51
Crown, 105
Crown molding, 92, 95
Cupola, 37, 49, 92, 97
Curbs: metal, 53
Curtain wall of glass, 75
Curved window glass, 79
Curvilinear gable, 3, 9
Cusps, 110
Cyma recta, 116
Cyma reversa, 116
Cymatium, 116
Dentils, 27, 41, 49, 84, 88, 95, 105
Dependencies, 98
Diagonal braces, 55, 100
Diagonal brackets, 55
Diamond slate tile, 100
Domed corner buttresses, 43
Domical roof, 48, 97
Door: double, 15, 37, 53, 101, 104; Dutch-type, 107; glass-paneled, 25, 37, 53, 101; paneled, 19, 104, 107; vertical board, 107; vertical board and batten, 11 Doric Order, 27, 82, 87
Dormers: eyelid, 91; gabled, 45; hipped, 33, 91; pedimented, 19; porthole, 53; projecting, 98; shed, 33, 71; wall, 31, 98
Drip board, 107
Dutch Colonial, 16
Dutch-cross bond, 17
Dutch door, 107
Dutch gambrel roof, 93
Eastern Stick, 54 Eastlake, 58
Eaves: boxed or closed, 75; close to wall, 11, 47, 61; flared, 15, 17, 47; open, 97; projecting, 5, 33, 65, 73; supporting, 53; wide, 37
Echinus, 82
Egg and dart molding, 83
Egyptian Revival, 28
Elbows, 17
Elliptical arch, 21, 106
Entasis, 82
English basement, 10, 19
English bond, 111
Entablature, 23, 39, 69, 84, 86, 89, 97
Entrances, 104-107; gabled, 33; Renaissance, 39, 51; Romanesque, 45. 47
Entresol windows, 41
Equilateral arch, 33
Extrados archivolt molding, 105
Eyebrow window heads, 37, 53 Eyelid dormer, 91
Facade, 25; stepped, 77
Fan light, 19, 106; semi-circular, 23
Fascia, 84, 95, 116; board, 89
Federal, 20
Figure sculpture, 67, 77
Finial, 51, 61, 96, 100
Finish: ashlar, 19, 29, 39, 67, 69; board and batten, 31; brick, 45, 53, 73; mouse-tooth, 112; plaster, 3, 5; smooth brick, 21, 25; stucco, 31, 73, 112; stone, 43
Fillet, 83, 85, 116
Fish-scale pattern slate tiles, 92
Flanking wings, 73
Flashing: ridge, 47, 90; metal roll, 91
Flat roof, 7, 79
Flemish bond, 13, 92, 111, 115
Fleur-de-lis, 99
Floriated patterns, 77
Fluted shaft, 82, 83, 84
Fluted pilasters, 104
French Colonial, 14
French window, 15
Frieze, 27, 41, 65, 67, 82, 84, 88, 95, 104; board, 53
Frontispiece: stepped, 77; pedimented, 104
Gable, 89, 100-101; clipped, 92; cross, 33; curvilinear, 3, 5, 9; Flemish, 13; pediment, 35; projecting, 55; step¬ped, 101
Gable end chimney, 17
Gable end jetty, 11
Gable end pent, 61
Gable roof, 11, 13, 17, 35, 57, 61, 71, 89; flared eaves, 17; horizontal eaves, 73
Gabled dormer, 45
Gabled entry, 33
Gabled nave, 43
Gabled overdoor, 101
Gabled porch, 45, 61
Gabled projecting pavilion, 13, 45
Gabled tower, 43
Gablet, 43
Gallery, 15, 41, 53
Gambrel roof: Dutch, 17,93; New England, 93; Swedish, 93
Garlands, 21
Gauged bricks, 111
Georgian, 18
Gingerbread vergeboard, 31
Glass curtain wall, 75
Glass-paneled door, 25, 37, 53, 101
Gothic arch, 33, 106
Gothic Revival, 30
Greek Orders, 82-85
Greek Doric Order, 82
Greek Revival, 26
Grilles: window, 9
Grille work, 77
Grotesques, 101, 107
Guilloche, 65; double, 116
Guttae, 82, 87
Half-timber, 49
Hand-split shingles, 11, 13, 15
Haunch, 105
Header course, 111, 112; glazed, 111
Hexagonal slate tiles, 91, 100
Hinges: strap, 107; L, 108
Hip knob, 51, 90, 96
Hip roll, 47
Hip roof, 3, 15, 47, 90, 91, 94; flared eaves, 15, 47; low pitch, 37, 73; truncated, 49
Hipped dormer, 33, 91
Hood mold, 31, 37, 43, 51, 106
Horizontal siding, 53
Hyphens: arcaded, 98
Impost, 105
Impost course, 43
Impost level, 47
Impost molding, 5
Impost return, 106
International, 74
Intrados soffit, 105
Ionic columns, 27
Ionic Order, 69, 83, 103
Iron balconet, 5, 9
Italianate, 36
ltalia Villa, 34
Jambs, 65, 107, 108
Jerkin head roof, 92
Jetty, 11
Joints, 111
Keystone, 19, 105, 113
Kick, 100
King post, 71, 100
Knee brace, 55. 71
Knobs on posts, 59
Knobs: hip, 90, 96 L-hinge, 108
Label mold, 31, 51, 106
Label stop, 106
Lancet window, 31
Lantern, 31
Lattice-like porch base, 59
Lights, 17, 25, 108, 109; corner, 27; fan, 21; in geometric patterns, 73; side, 19, 21, 25, 27, 106; transom, 19 Lintel, 7, 107; opening, 65; sash, 33; stone, 113
Lobes, 110
Loggia, 9, 33
Lotus-flower capital, 29
Louvered shutters, 21, 25
Low-relief sculpture, 51
Lunette, 23, 35, 89
Mansard roof: concave side, 53, 94; convex side, 53; straight side, 53, 91, 92
Medallions, 67
Merlons, 97
Metal roll flashing, 91
Metal panels, 77
Metopes, 82, 87
Metule blocks, 82
Mirrored panels, 79
Mission, 4
Mitered arch window heads, 33
Modillion, 41, 84; blocks, 89; brackets, 13, 35; cornice, 19; scroll, 95
Molded archivolts, 106
Molded Roman Doric base, 87, 116
Molded brick, 111
Molded rake board, 100
Molded terra cotta belt, 116
Molded terra cotta cornice, 96, 116
Molding: bed, 92, 95, 116; chevron and lozenge, 77; crown, 92, 95; extrados-archivolt, 105; ovolo, 86; roll, 29, 99; rope-like, 29, 99; scotia, 23; streamlined, 79; torus, 23, 83, 86, 116
Monitor, 97
Monumental portico, 103
Mosaic tile, 77
Mouse toothing, 17, 112, 113
Mullion, 51, 65, 109
Muntin, 108
Nave, 31, 43
Neo-Classicism, 68
New England Colonial, 10
New England gambrel roof, 93
Niche, 3, 9, 45
Obelisk-like pinnacle, 43
Octagon, 48
Ogee curve, 51, 110
Orders: Roman Doric, 23, 87, 103; Greek Doric, 27, 82; Ionic, 83, 103; Corinthian, 84, 85; Tuscan, 86, 103; Composite, 88
Oriel window, 31
Overhang, 11
Ovolo molding, 86
Pagoda-like roof, 92
Palladian window, 19, 110
Paneled door, 19, 104, 105, 107
Paneled window apron, 39, 107
Paneled pilaster, 39
Paneled soffit, 85
Panels: glass, 25, 37; carved Eastlake, 59; cement, 79; metal, 77; molded door, -104, 105, 107; shutters, 109; terra cotta, 65, 116
Parapet, 43, 69; coping on, 5; pilastered, 67
Parapet wall, 3, 7, 17, 45
Parapet trim, 77
Pavilion: projecting, 13,.33, 45; central, 53, 67; pedimented, 67
Pavilion roof, 15
Pedestal, 19, 67, 86, 104
Pediment: swan’s neck, 25, 104; roof, 61, 93
Pedimented dormers, 19
Pedimented frontispiece, 104
Pedimented pavilion, 67
Pedimented portico, 23
Pedimented window head, 27, 35, 37
Pendant, 11, 55, 96
Pent: chimney, 13, 99; gable end, 61
Pent roof, 61, 93
Piazza, 102
Pier, 5, 43, 47, 71, 105
Pilaster, 3, 69; cornerboards, 27; entry framed by, 39, 104; monumental, 19; paneled, 39; strip, 65, 110
Pilastered arcades, 45
Pilastered parapet, 67
Pilaster-like mullions, 65
Pinnacle, 31, 43
Pintles, 107, 108
Plinth, 23, 83, 86, 87, 105, 116
Plaster finish, 5, 9, 75; with adobe brick, 3
Plastered portal, 9
Porte cochere, 31, 91, 102
Porthole dormer, 53
Porthole window, 65
Podium, 23, 84, 88
Pointed arch, 31
Porch: balconied, 25; bell-shaped roof, 49; carriage, 31 91, 102; circular, 61; encircling, 3, 15, 49; end-wall, 102; gabled, 45, 61, 91; piers, 71; posts, 7, 59, 71; projecting, 57; rafters, 55, 57; sun, 71; two-tiered, 3, 61; veranda-like, 53
Portal, 3; compound pointed arched, 106; compound round arched, 107; plastered and arched, 9 Portico: balconied, 25; domed circular, 21; giant, 103; in Ionic order, 69, 103; pedimented, 23; Roman Doric, 103; two or double-tiered, 3, 103
Posts, 15; corner, 11, 55; king, 17, 100; porch, 7, 71; rounded, 3, 59; with knobs, 59
Prairie, 72
Pueblo, 6
Pulvinated frieze, 104
Purlins, 55, 57, 100
Pylon tower, 29
Pyramidal roof, 43, 94
Quarrels (lights), 109
Quatrefoil porch trim pattern, 31, 51
Quatrefoil tracery, 110
Queen Anne, 62
Queen’s closer, 111
Quoins, 19, 113; rusticated, 37, 39, 41; smooth ashlar, 113; stone, 33, 41, 53; vermiculated, 35; wood, 115
Rafters, 71, 100; exposed, 5, 57; porch, 55; projecting, 7
Rail, 104, 108, 109; balcony, 57; meeting, 109
Railing, false or blind, 110
Rainbow roof, 93
Raised basement, 15, 21, 49, 67
Rake board, 90, 100
Raking cornice, 27, 82, 89
Raven, 29
Reel, bead and, 95
Relieving arch, 13, 47, 111
Renaissance Revival, 38
Respond, 88
Return, 27
Ribbon windows, 79
Richardsonian arch, 106
Richardsonian Romanesque, 46
Ridge, 89; beam or pole, 100; board, 90; flashing, 47, 90
Rinceau, 65, 67
Riven shingles, 11, 13, 15
Rock-faced stone trim, 45
Rock-faced coursed ashlar, 45, 47
Roll or rope molding, 29, 99
Roman Classicism, 22
Roman Doric columns, 69
Roman Doric Order, 87
Roman Doric Portico, 103
Romanesque Revival, 42
Roman Order, 23, 87
Rondelles, 67
Roof, 89-98; beams, 3; catslide, 90; conical, 33, 45, 51; cresting, 51, 53; domical, 49, 97; double hip, 95; flat, 7, 79; gable, 11, 113,117,57,71,73,89,92; gambrel, 17, 93; hip, 3, 15, 37, 47, 73, 90, 91, 94, 95; jerkin head, 92; low pitch, 21, 33, 49; mansard, 53, 91, 92, 94; multi¬gabled, 61; pagoda-like, 92; pavilion, 15; pent, 61, 93; pyramidal, 43; rainbow, 93; saltbox, 11, 90; shed, 3, 90; shingle, 25, 90; slate, 23, 31, 91; thatch, (simulated) 91; tiled, 5, 9, 23
Round arch, 37, 47
Round posts, 59
Rounded corners, 7, 79
Rubbed brick, 111
Rubble, 113
Rubble stone: chimney, 15; dry-laid, 114; uncoursed, 114
Rusticated ashlar: ground floor, 41, 67; quoins, 37, 39, 41; raised basement. 67
Saddle bars, 109
Sash: lintel-type, 33; metal, 77; multi-light, 19, 39, 61; round arch, 110; single-light, 25, 41, 69; triple-hung, 110; twenty-light, 104; two-light, 37
Saltbox roof, 90
Scotia molding, 23, 83, 116
Scroll (Ionic), 83
Scroll brackets, 33, 59
Scroll-like modillions, 95
Sculpture: stylized figure, 67, 77
Second Empire, 52
Second Renaissance Revival, 40
Segmental relieving arch, 13, 92
Segmental window, 37, 39
Shaft: bundled, 29; fluted, 82, 84, 88; smooth, 23, 87
Shed dormer, 33, 71
Shed roof, 3, 89, 90
Shingle, 60
Shingle-covered porch posts, 61
Shingles: combed at ridge 13; riven, 11, 13, 15; roof, 25; wood, 3, 11, 13, 71
Shingle siding, 57, 59, 61, 71 Shouldered arch, 33; depressed, 110
Shutters: board and batten, 17; louvered, 21, 25; paneled, 109
Shutter holdbacks, 109 Side lights, 21, 27, 105, 106
Siding: bevel, 25; board, 25, 115; board and batten, 31; clapboard, 104; horizontal, 55; shingle, 57, 59, 61, 71; weatherboard, 115
Sill, 15, 55, 57, 104, 108, 109
Slate roof, 31
Slate roof tile, 23, 33, 53, 90; common lap tile, 100; diamond tile, 100; fish-scale tile, 92; hexagonal tile, 91, 100
Soffit, 85, 89; intrados-soffit, 105
Southern Colonial, 12
Spanish Colonial, 2
Spanish Colonial Revival, 8
Spandrel, 43, 45, 105; grille work in, 77; terra cotta, 65; window, 77
Sphinx, 29
Spindle baluster, 59
Spool baluster, 59
Springer, 105
Stacks: diagonal, 13; separate from end wall, 13, 99; T-shape, 100; See also Chimneys.
Staircase exterior, 15
Statuary, 67, 77
Stepped facade, 77
Stepped gable, 100
Stile, 104, 107, 109
Stone: bands, 45; columns, 45; finish, 43, 113, 114, 115; lintel, 113; quoins, 41, 53; sill, 113; trim, 45; work, checkerboard, 45
Stoop, 17
Strap hinges, 107
Stretcher course, 111, 112
String course, 37, 79
Struck joints, 111
Stucco, 41, 75; brick columns, 15; finish, 31, 73; ledge, 73
Studs, 55
Stylobate, 82
Sullivanesque, 64
Sun disk and vulture symbol, 29
Sun porch, 71
Sunrise and floriated patterns, 77
Swags, 21
Swan’s neck pediment, 25, 104
Swedish gambrel roof, 93
Tabernacle frame (aedicula), 67
Table: corbel, 43
Talon ornament, 116
Taenia, 82
Tent roof, 94
Terra cotta: chimney pots, 96, 99; cornice. 96, 116; panel, 65; spandrels, 65; tiles, 33, 96
Terrace: balustraded, 51, 73
Thatch roof: simulated, 91
Thumb latch, 107
Tie: collar, 100 Tie beam, 71
Tile: clay, 3; coping, 5; diamond slate, 100; fish-scale pattern, 92; hexagonal slate, 100; roof, 9, 25; slate, 33, 53, 92, 100; terra cotta, 33, 96
Tooled joints, 111
Torus molding, 23, 83, 86, 116
Tower: bell, 3, 5, 9; gabled, 43; pylon, 29; short, 47; with battlements, 31; with conical roof, 45, 51, 61; with finial, 61; with hip knob, 61; with parapets, 43; with pyramidal roof, 43
Tracery: arched, 51; quatrefoil, 110; trefoil, 110; window, 31, 51, 106
Transept, 31
Transom, 27, 51, 104, 105, 107; bar, 51, 104,107; light, 19
Transomed window, 45
Trefoil arch, 33, 110; with tracery, 110
Triglyph, 82, 87
Truncated hip roof, 51
T-shape stacks, 100
Tudor arch, 31, 106
Tumbling, 17, 112, 113
Turret, 33
Tuscan Order, 86, 103
Tympanum, 23, 27, 43, 47, 89, 107
Urns, 19
Uncoursed rubble stone. 114
Valley: hip roof, 90
Venetian window, 19, 110
Veranda: encircling, 49; two-tiered, 102
Veranda-like porch, 53
Vergeboards, 31, 101
Vermiculated quoins, 35
Victorian Gothic, 32
Victorian Romanesque, 44
Vigas, 3, 7
Vitruvian scroll, 116
Volute buttress, 101
Volutes, 77, 83, 88
Voussoirs, 33, 45, 105, 106
Wall: buttress, 43; battered, 29; end, 89; finishes, 19, 73, 79, 113-116; parapet, 3, 7, 17, 45
Wall plate, 71
Water table, 13, 17, 111
Weather boards, 101; siding, 115
Weatherings, 13, 31
Western Stick. 54
Window, 108-110; aedicula, 67; arched opening, 9, 21, 23; attic, 27,41; bay, 25, 31, 101; casement, 11, 15, 57, 59, 73, 75, 108; clerestory, 75; continuous band, 73; deep-set, 47; double-hung sash, 19; entresol, 41; flank¬ing chimney, 71; French, 15; in gable end, 17; in gam¬brel end, 17; gothic, 33; grilles on, 9; head, 9, 21, 25, 27, 29, 33, 35, 37, 53, 77, 104; lancet, 31; lintels, 7; metal, 77, 79; multi-light, 61; oriel, 31; paired, 53; Pal¬ladian, 19, 110; porthole, 65; sash, 19, 39, 61, 109; segmental, 37; tall, 23, 27, 37, 53; tracery around, 31, 51; transomed, 45, 47; triple-hung sash, 110; tripart, 21, 25; Venetian, 19, 110; in vertical strips, 65; wheel, 31
Window openings: arched, 65; lintel-type, 13; narrow, 13; splayed, 43, wide, 71
Window surrounds, 9, 77, 114
Wooden colonettes, 15
Wood shingles, 3, 11, 13, 15, 25, 71
X braces, 55
Zig-zag decorative band, 77
Zig-zag parapet trim, 77

Source Citation

Blumenson, John J.-G. Identifying American Architecture, 1977